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World’s First Underground Farm to Open This Fall in London

World’s First Underground Farm to Open This Fall in London

Entrepreneurs Richard Ballard and Steven Dring are working on growing greens under London

Farmers hard at work at the underground farm underneath the streets of London.

With the population of London set to grow by two million in the next decade and urbanites pushing out into surrounding rural areas, what is going to happen to London’s farmland? Richard Ballard and Steven Dring believe they have the answer to this question: underground farms, powered by hydroponic technology. The two have teamed up with Zero Carbon Foods and Michelin Chef Michel Roux Jr., to create what they believe to be the world’s first-ever underground farm.

The farm will be 2.5 acres under London’s North line, and is set to open for production in September, when it will be producing salad greens, mini vegetables, edible flowers and micro herbs. Right now, the green inventors are in the testing phases of the farming techniques. They are extremely passionate about their new invention, and anxious to raise enough money to operate their farm. They just started a crowd-funding site that launched at the end of January.

“This is the edge of what’s possible right now, it’s the future of growing,” Steven Dring told The Daily Meal. “We come from farm communities, and this is about a passion for food.”

Dring said that the technology serves as an ebb and flow system, where the water used to grow the plants ebbs away into a tank. The artificial sunlight is created from state-of-the-art LEDs from Finland.

So the question on everyone’s mind is, how do underground veggies taste? Critic Samuel Muston from The Independent got to taste the veggies and said, “I suppose I was expecting them to look a little green about the gills, a little sickly. Yet here they are in front of me, plum and meaty.”

World's largest vertical farm grows without soil, sunlight or water in Newark

A n ambitious, almost fantastical, manifestation of agricultural technology is expected to come to fruition this fall. From the remains of an abandoned steel mill in Newark, New Jersey, the creators of AeroFarms are building what they say will be the largest vertical farm, producing two million pounds of leafy greens a year.

Whether it even qualifies as a “farm” is a matter of taste. The greens will be manufactured using a technology called aeroponics, a technique in which crops are grown in vertical stacks of plant beds, without soil, sunlight or water.

“I ate some of the arugula here,” said New Jersey governor Chris Christie after a recent visit to a smaller AeroFarms facility in the neighborhood. “It tastes fabulous. No dressing necessary.”

The farm, built in the economically depressed New Jersey city promises new jobs, millions of dollars in public-private investment, and an array of locally grown leafy greens for sale. The company has spent some $30m to bring to reality a new breed of “green agriculture” that seeks to produce more crops in less space while minimizing environmental damage, even if it means completely divorcing food production from the natural ecosystem.

AeroFarms and other companies developing similar controlled growing climates claim to be transforming agriculture. Proponents of vertical farming call it the “third green revolution”, analogizing the developments to Apple and Tesla. They tout the potential of such technology to address food shortages as the world population continues to grow.

AeroFarms touts their products as free of pesticides and fertilizer, an attribute that investors think will attract customers who buy organic produce. “We definitely see the need for healthy food in the local area and Newark in particular,” said Lata Reddy, vice-president for corporate social responsibility at Prudential Financial, one of the investors in the project.

Is the arugula edible? Proponents say yes. Photograph: Malavika Vyawahare

But, food that is not grown in soil may not be palatable to many, even those who are opting for organic substitutes. “If you take the soil out of the system, is it a legitimate organic system?” questioned Carolyn Dimitri, director of the food studies program at New York University. The US Department of Agriculture does not consider the question of organic certification for growing methods that do not use soil, according to AeroFarms’ website.

“Urban farming is trendy,” Dimitri said. It remains an open question, she said, whether it will be economically viable. Prudential Financial has invested “patient capital” in the venture, which is used to finance social impact projects that are unlikely to yield benefits right away. There are no aeroponics projects of this scale but AeroFarms has piloted the technology at Philip’s Academy charter school in Newark, where students are served greens grown at the school.

How Hydroponics Work

Humans have been growing plants in water (hydroponics) almost as long as we have been growing them in dirt. Only in the last few decades, however, has technology caught up with this practice enough to support efficient and commercially viable plant production for human consumption.

The basic idea behind hydroponics involves growing plants in just water - no soil. Within these parameters, there are various ways to grow and reap a bountiful harvest, but most hydroponics systems work using the same basic principles: Plants are grown within some type of container, where water - with added fertilizer - can reach the roots and allow the plants to grow. Either natural or artificial light may be used to aid in the plants’ process of photosynthesis.

Hydroponics save 70 to 95% more water than traditional, soil-based farming due to reduced evaporation and recycling water in a closed loop system. When coupled with modern innovations in stackable technology and LED lighting, we get vertical farming.

This futuristic twist on agriculture can be administered inside almost any building and can produce much more crop yield per square foot than conventional, outdoor farming - right in your home town. Most fruits and vegetables come from more than 1,000 miles away and take a week or more to reach your plate. Vertical farms can be local and get food to consumers in as little as 24 hours!

The truly extraordinary advantage of farming indoors is that we can grow and harvest locally, 365 days per year, in any climate, with absolutely zero pesticides or herbicides, making it the freshest, healthiest, and most nutritious organic food on earth.

Example of a vertical growing tower

Entrances [ edit | edit source ]

34.9, 65.8 Flyer-accessible entrance on the top of a peak. Flying in this entrance is permissible on official servers, however caution and Parachute are advised. (Tested 8/26/2017)

  • The journey consists of a long cave with narrow stone bridges occupied by deadly creatures over deep ravines of lava.
  • This is one of the entrances that flyers can access, and one without water. The other one is the Ruins entrance.
  • The journey through this entrance gets very laggy due to the amount of creatures. It is suggested that you either lead them into the lava or stick to the ceiling with your flyer.

32.7, 64.1: Underwater entrance at the bottom of a river.

    or a high-oxygen stat is required to access this entrance.
  • The journey consists of a long cave with dangerous heights, narrow passageways, and deadly creatures.
  • You will have to crouch at a point in this journey, so bringing large mounts is not advised, as they will be trapped.

34.3, 53.3: Flooded entrance in some ruins on an unnamed island off the north island.

44.2, 58.0: Underwater entrance at the bottom of a small river bay near a set of ruins on the middle island.

    or a high-oxygen stat is NOT required to access these entrances (it is entirely possible to do with 100 oxygen) making it by far the easiest entrance to take. Swim to the bottom of one of the pits, surface, then drop down into the cavern. It is next to impossible to return to the surface via this route however, unless you wish to leave a valuable flyer behind, or build the world’s largest ladder.
  • The journeys are a nerve racking, perilous jump from the surface straight into the sea of the Underground World, hundreds of feet below. The water prevents fall damage if done correctly. (note- this would kill you in real life, with or without water)
  • The sea itself is filled with many vicious Mantas you should avoid contact with. Swim to the nearest piece of land (a small island to your left) immediately, and don't look back. Additionally try to avoid any Ichthyosaurus that you may encounter, as whilst they may not directly attack you, their huge numbers and inquisitive nature can lead to up to 20 encircling you. This completely inhibits your movement, wasting your stamina, and leaving you at the wrath of the Mantas. If encircled the best course of action is to swim downwards, and hug the ocean floor for a short while, then return to the surface.
  • Avoid the ledge that juts out on your way down the shafts erroneously jumping into that will probably kill you.

66.1,51.7 Underwater entrance

  • This entrance was added in PC patch 245.0
  • This is one of two entrances where players can go back and forth between the Underground World and the surface on foot.
  • This path is very long and you will not survive without either Lazarus Chowder or a SCUBA Tank. Mosasaurus fits in here, giving full-accessibility to most but the largest aquatic and amphibious creatures tamed inside or outside the underground world to traverse both sides.
    • Keeps your pure-aquatic mounts away from water surface before you reach the ocean in Underground World.

    53.5, 53.8 Ruins entrance.

    • This entrance was added in PC patch 245.0
    • This entrance is very long, dangerous, and easy to get lost in.
    • This is one of two entrances where players can go back and forth between the Underground World and the surface on foot. Therizinosaur is the largest creature that has full-accessibility(in and out) for this entrance. Megatherium can go in, but won't be able to get out from this way due to a bottleneck point that is easily walked over on the way in because of the tunnel’s slope. Even smaller creatures with wide stances can get stuck however, such as scorpions and trikes. These creatures can either be lead back to the main cavern and retrieved via flyer, left behind or led through via ghost console commands (can cause major bugs when used with mounts however).
    • When you first enter through the surface entrance, walk until you get to a point where you can see some more ruins and some lit fires, with a pathway down from the ledge you're on on your right. There will be a staircase up and a hole in the wall beneath that. The staircase leads to a potential loot crate spawn, so it may be worth checking, but the hole in the wall is the way towards Underground World. After walking through the hole in the wall, you will find a crystal cave. Continue going forward through this cave, being careful not to fall off the pathway (however, if you have at least two Parachutes, you can parachute off the pathway, turn around, and then parachute down again for a shortcut to the Underground World). Once you pass through the crystal cave, it will open into a much larger, flooded cave with some more ruins in the center, with some stairs going down into the water on the left.
      • Path 1: Jump down into the water and swim counter-clockwise around the ruins. This path is very long and you will not survive without either Lazarus Chowder or a SCUBA Tank. Swim all the way down and hug the right wall until you find a path that branches off to the right. At this point, simply follow the cave until it lets you out into the lake of the Underground World. Watch out for Anglers during this swim.
      • Path 2: Climb down the stairs and follow the left wall. You will be led into a cave with lots of stalagmites on the ground. Follow it to the end and you will arrive in the Underground World. This path is much shorter than path 1 and requires almost no swimming, but the final cave typically has a very large amount of Araneo, Arthropluera, Onyc, Pulmonoscorpius, and Titanoboa.

      ‘Night Tube,’ a First for London, Brings All-Night Service to Two Subway Lines

      LONDON — The London Underground, the world’s oldest subway system, opened a new chapter in its storied history on Friday night and Saturday morning: For the first time, trains on two lines kept operating all night.

      The late-night, weekend-only service, called the Night Tube, began on the Central and Victoria Lines and will extend to three other lines in the fall. The idea had been discussed for decades and was originally scheduled for September 2015, but was put off because of labor disputes.

      The Central and Victoria Line trains will run about every 10 minutes between 12:30 a.m. and 5:30 a.m. on Saturday and Sunday, serving 51 stations. The two lines are among the busiest in the system, which serves 4.8 million passengers a day.

      London joined a small club of cities — New York, Vienna and Copenhagen, among them — in offering weekend round-the-clock service. Like Berlin and other cities, London has a network of night buses, and the agency added eight new routes to its night-bus network to complement the new late-night subway service.

      Transport for London, the city’s transit agency, estimates that the new service will shorten the average late-night trip by 20 minutes. About 200,000 people are expected to use the new service each weekend. Even before the new service, the number of riders using the system on Friday and Saturday nights had surged by around 70 percent since 2000.

      The Central Line, which opened in 1900, runs east-west, covering gentrifying and youth-filled neighborhoods in East London, like Shoreditch and Bethnal Green, as well the City, London’s financial district. The Victoria Line, which opened in 1968, extends north from the multicultural neighborhood of Brixton, through major transit hubs like the Victoria, Euston and King’s Cross-St. Pancras train stations, into North London.

      Night Tube service will expand to the Jubilee, Piccadilly and Northern lines in the autumn, but no date has been announced.

      “It’s been busier than I expected,” Jamie Honor, a customer-service agent at the Finsbury Park station on the Victoria Line, said at 4:10 a.m. on Saturday. “There was a rush around 3 a.m., but it’s been great. People were cheering, ‘Night Tube!’ It seems to be the buzz.”

      Safety is a concern in a capital where public drunkenness is not uncommon, but on the first night at least, things seemed under control.

      “We were worried people may fall off the escalators, or fighting on the platforms, but we’ve been lucky,” said Faisal Ahmed, a Tube worker at the Liverpool Street station on the Central Line.

      Transport for London said it had added about 500 employees to run the Night Tube, and invested 3.4 million pounds (about $4.4 million) in additional policing. By the time the three next Night Tube lines open, more than 100 officers will patrol a total of 144 stations at night.

      “I was a bit worried about passengers’ alarms being pulled or drunk people causing issues, but it’s been absolutely fine,” a driver, Alicia Durant, 24, said as she walked to the northern end of a Victoria Line train at the Brixton terminus to begin the journey north. (Her shift ran from 9 p.m. to 5.30 a.m.)

      The Night Tube was announced in November 2013 — along with 750 job cuts and the closing of ticket offices.

      Labor unions quickly raised objections, and in 2014 and 2015, employees went on a series of strikes, including a four-day Tube disruption. An agreement on pay largely resolved the dispute in March, and the start date of the Night Tube was announced in May by the city’s new mayor, Sadiq Khan.

      Mr. Khan met with Tube employees at the Oxford Circus station (where the Central and Victoria Lines intersect) on Friday morning, and then boarded the Victoria Line at Brixton just after midnight on Saturday. “I’m really excited — 153 years after the first Tubes began in London, we are going to have a Night Tube,” he said.

      He added: “It’s about helping people get to work, doctors, nurses, porters, security guards, but also getting people to and from the theater, to live music venues, home safely.”

      “We’re always in London on weekends,” Clare Adamberry, 57, said as she sat next to a friend on a Victoria Line train at around 2 a.m. They had stayed out late after a day trip to the southern city of Brighton, on the English Channel. “I usually pay for cabs or Uber,” Ms. Adamberry said.

      “I have an 18-year-old who goes out and takes night buses,” she added. “It took her two and a half hours to get home last week, taking different buses. I was on the phone with her the whole time. If she’s not using the Night Tube tonight, she’ll be using it tomorrow.”

      Janka Horvatova, 27, is an assistant manager at a restaurant near King’s Cross station and is responsible for closing it. “I can never catch the last Tube, so I take two night buses, which can take up to 50 minutes,” she said as she got off the train at the Stockwell station in South London, still wearing her work clothes. “With the Night Tube, it took 15 minutes.”

      The strange, gruesome truth about plague pits and the Tube

      When the bubonic plague broke out in London in 1665, it wasn&rsquot the first time the disease terrified the city. But it was one of the deadliest outbreaks that the city had ever seen &mdash and, possibly, the most infamous.

      It&rsquos long been thought that there might be victims of that crippling epidemic buried underneath London&hellip under and alongside the trains people use every day.

      This week, scientists confirmed there are.

      The plague wiped out a great deal of 17th-century Britain. In London, it&rsquos thought that fatalities reached up to 100,000, roughly one-fifth of the population. Popular accounts of the epidemic described its horror in detail. And they described the mass graves, known as &lsquoplague pits&rsquo, which are said to have gouged land across the city. Hundreds of bodies were said to have been hastily buried in these pits without coffins, care or ceremony.

      Two hundred years later, London opened its first underground railway &mdash the world&rsquos first &mdash in 1863. By the century&rsquos close, a spider web of track linked stations as far as Shepherd&rsquos Bush and Bank, Hammersmith and Mansion House.

      If you look at these early routes, you&rsquoll notice something odd: They don&rsquot take the straightest, fastest line from point A to B. Instead, they meander. They curve. Almost like they&rsquore avoiding something.

      It didn&rsquot take long to put two and two together. When engineers went to design these underground railroads, the story goes, they tried to avoid plague pits &mdash either because they didn&rsquot want to disturb the dead, or because the bodies were packed too thickly to bore through.

      [Tube train lines] meander. They curve. Almost like they&rsquore avoiding something.

      Various resources hold that there are a number of places where engineers hit bodies&hellip or tried to avoid them. Catharine Arnold, in her 2006 book Necropolis: London and Its Dead, writes: &ldquoAt the spot where Brompton Road and Knightsbridge now meet, excavations for the Piccadilly Line between Knightsbridge and South Kensington Underground stations unearthed a pit so dense with human remains that it could not be tunnelled through. This is said to account for the curving nature of the track between the two stations.&rdquo

      A crowd-sourced (but double-checked, its creator told me) map of London&rsquos plague pits by the group Historic UK, later picked up by publications ranging from the Daily Mail to the Telegraph, mentions that a runaway lane for trains at Elephant & Castle junction is blocked off by a plague pit, while the Victoria Line drilled through a pit under Green Park.

      &ldquoThe Underground system passes through many burial grounds and plague pits,&rdquo says Peter Ackroyd in his 2012 book, London Under.

      But did plague pits &mdash or human burials at all &mdash really affect the shape of London&rsquos underground lines?

      As it turns out, probably not. But the truth, in some ways, is even stranger&hellip and even more morbid.

      When I asked London&rsquos transport historians about the plague pit-Tube connection, the overall response was a collective eye-roll. One after another told me that, in all of their record-scouring of Underground history, they&rsquod never come across any mentions of plague pits.

      &ldquoIn all of the work I have done and am doing I have never encountered anything that suggested real or imagined plague pits influenced the construction of the London Underground,&rdquo Tube historian and author Mike Horne wrote in an e-mail.

      Author Scott Wood found the same. &ldquoContacting the Transport for London Corporate Archives, I was told that there are no specific references to plague pits in their records,&rdquo he wrote in his book London Urban Legends: The Corpse on the Tube and Other Stories. &ldquoI wanted to make sure &mdash plague pits really are everywhere in London lore &mdash so I went through the files on the planning and construction of the Victoria line and the Fleet line, which became the Jubilee line, under Green Park.&rdquo Wood, like everyone else, turned up empty.

      Not only that. Aside from one well-known example at St Pancras railway station in the 1860s, experts say they hadn&rsquot come across mentions of human remains &mdash of any kind &mdash in their research of the Underground&rsquos early years. &ldquoNever found dead bodies at all,&rdquo says transport journalist and expert Christian Wolmar.

      Experts were also quick to point out that we know why the subway lines curve, and it&rsquos not because of plague pits. It&rsquos because of cost.

      The first routes, including the Circle, District and Metropolitan railways, were built using mainly &lsquocut and cover&rsquo construction. This meant digging a trench about 30ft wide by 20ft deep, bricking in walls and a roof, then shovelling everything over with about 6ft of topsoil. As a result, the railway companies had to purchase any private property affected by construction. In 1860, for example, the Metropolitan Railway bought and demolished some 1,000 homes for the line from King&rsquos Cross to Farringdon.

      Even when tunnelling was used more frequently &mdash as it was later with the Central, Piccadilly, Bakerloo, Hammersmith & City and Northern lines &mdash people believed that building collapses could occur if a tunnel was dug underneath. So the law still required that the railway companies buy any property they passed under.

      As a result, whenever they could, the companies dug under publicly-owned roads.

      It&rsquos easy to see just how much of the Tube is explained this way by looking at a geographically accurate map, which you can see here. Looking it as an overlay on Google Maps, like with this version, makes it easier to see the roads.

      This alone deflates a lot of the anecdotes. That bit between South Kensington and Knightsbridge, for example, suddenly looks a lot less suspicious: it&rsquos following Brompton Road, not skirting resting places for plague victims.

      Since most mentions of the Piccadilly Line-plague pit connection reference Catharine Arnold&rsquos book Necropolis, I asked her where she&rsquod found it.

      &ldquoIt&rsquos anecdotal,&rdquo she told me. &ldquoI got that from a then-boyfriend.&rdquo She didn&rsquot know where he&rsquod heard it from.

      In any case, it would be strange for the Piccadilly Line to have to go around a plague pit, transport experts say. As one of the later railways, it was dug deeper than those earlier cut-and-cover lines, running between about 40 and 80ft below the surface. That&rsquos far below the level of any supposed plague burials.

      And even if there were burials near an underground line, it&rsquos unlikely that that would have affected their design, says David Long, author of London Underground: Architecture, Design and History.

      &ldquoThe notion of diverting a line because of that seems far-fetched,&rdquo he says. &ldquoI think that it would just plough straight through it.&rdquo

      According to the story of the Green Park plague pit, that&rsquos what happened with the Victoria Line.

      But when I searched through numerous newspaper articles written about the route&rsquos construction in the 1960s, I couldn&rsquot find a single mention of human remains &mdash despite how much such a story would have helped sell tabloids.

      Later, in the Museum of Transport library, researcher Caroline Warhurst and I searched through books for any references at all.

      We found nothing about plague pits.

      There were a few mentions of Underground construction stumbling upon human remains, even if not plague victims, but they were nearly all found rather recently. In 1992, 160 skeletons, mainly of destitute women and babies, were removed from a crowded 19th-century burial ground at Redcross Way during tunnelling for the Jubilee Line extension. Two years later, 21 years of digging for the Jubilee&rsquos new Stratford depot wrapped up at the burial ground of the Abbey of St Mary&rsquos, Stratford Langthorne 647 graves were excavated.

      But what about the Underground&rsquos earlier days, over a full century earlier? There was only one tantalisingly short detail.

      It turned up in Alan Jackson&rsquos London&rsquos Metropolitan Railway, a 328-page tome detailing seemingly every debate, cost and parliamentary bill regarding the Underground&rsquos genesis. But it only had this to say about when the line from Paddington to King&rsquos Cross hit remains in 1862:

      &ldquoMuch of the excavation was made through the dust and debris of past ages, which in some places lay in a stratum up to 24ft deep. Human remains were encountered, payment being made to the London Necropolis Company for their removal and reburial at Brookwood, whither the bones of those who had never known railways travelled by train.&rdquo

      Scouring 19th-century newspapers led to more examples.

      At a Commissioners of Sewers meeting in October 1865, the Standard reported, someone had written to the North London Railway &ldquocomplaining of the manner in which certain human remains found in excavating the ground for one of their stations in the City&hellip were alleged to have been treated.&rdquo

      The company secretary looked into it. He said that, yes, bones were found &mdash and they were stuffed into one of the railway arches for safekeeping while the company decided what to do with them.

      The commissioners&rsquo clerk had a suggestion for North London Railway as what to do with the bodies: he told them that recently, human remains had been found in West Street, Smithfield during the construction of a railway. He said that &ldquothey were carefully collected, put in coffins, and conveyed to the City of London Cemetery at Ilford.&rdquo

      Even Westminster Abbey&rsquos burial ground was affected by the construction of a train line.

      &ldquoBacked by an Act of Parliament, nothing may be considered safe, above ground or beneath, if a railway is required,&rdquo wrote the Morning Post in September 1866. &ldquoA striking illustration of this fact is just now occurring before Westminster Abbey, a portion of whose burial ground the new railway undermines. The passer by may notice that the whole northern side of the abbey churchyard is enclosed by a lofty hoarding, cutting off a large slice of the burial ground. Here the excavations for the new underground railway are in progress and the human remains laid in consecrated earth, and vainly supposed to have been deposited till the day of doom, are being removed, coffined and uncoffined, to the necropolis at Woking &mdash a more fitting and more safe final resting-place.&rdquo

      Yes, bones were found &mdash and they were stuffed into one of the railway arches for safekeeping while the company decided what to do with them.

      There were other hints that this wasn&rsquot an entirely infrequent occurrence &mdash and that it was a trend that spanned a couple decades. In 1884, Isabella Gladstone for Pall Mall Gazette wrote that the railway companies &ldquoeven endeavour to appropriate the square-gardens and the small burial-grounds (consecrated or unconsecrated) which they find conveniently situated for their purpose.&rdquo

      &ldquoThere is scarcely a railway line which does not run over a few graveyards,&rdquo she wrote.

      Later, Roy Stephenson, the Museum of London&rsquos head of archaeology, mentioned to me that he&rsquod recently come upon a memorial he&rsquod never seen before: an unassuming monument tucked into a wall on Cloak Lane, an area near St Paul&rsquos Cathedral. The memorial simply reads: &ldquoSacred to the memory of the dead interred in the ancient church & churchyard of St John the Baptist upon Walbrook during four centuries. The formation of the District Railway having necessitated the destruction of the greater part of the churchyard all the human remains contained therein were carefully collected and reinterred in a vault beneath this monument AD 1884.&rdquo

      Like many other churches in the City of London, St John the Baptist upon Walbrook burned down in the fire of 1666. Only its burial ground remained &mdash until it was cut through by the District line.

      I emailed Warhurst at the library. &ldquoWe don&rsquot have a note of that memorial here, and it isn&rsquot mentioned in the relevant published histories covering that bit of the story,&rdquo she wrote back. &ldquoWe&rsquoll add that to our records.&rdquo

      Transport workers hitting human remains in London makes sense, given how many unmarked burials there are &mdash even if such incidents only turn up rarely in historical accounts of the Underground being built.

      &ldquoJust about every green space you find in the city was probably a form of a burial ground,&rdquo says Jay Carver, lead archaeologist for Crossrail, London&rsquos high-speed, deep-tunnel railway currently under construction. &ldquoA lot of those will still have human remains below ground. But they&rsquore not marked.&rdquo

      Some of that is from former burial grounds that lost their churches in the 1666 fire. More often, though, it&rsquos because of a law passed in 1852 to close the city&rsquos cemeteries.

      By the early 19th Century, London&rsquos churchyards were becoming too crowded coffins sometimes jutted out of grounds and the air filled with a stench blamed for causing lethargy, fever, even cholera. Closed in the 1850s, many were re-landscaped and cleared of gravestones &mdash but not always of human remains.

      But few if any of those burial grounds &mdash and none that the railways seem to have hit &mdash were &lsquoplague pits&rsquo.

      That&rsquos partly because plague pits themselves are rarer than people think. As long as land was available, plague victims were buried in cemeteries: usually in churchyards, along with those who died of other causes.

      &ldquoThe plague is a terrible experience for Londoners, so in some ways they cling on to things that they&rsquore used to, that give them stability and comfort,&rdquo says University of London historian Vanessa Harding. &ldquoAnd one of those things is, as far as possible, people should be buried properly.&rdquo

      But what of sites for only plague victims, ones outside a church&rsquos formal burial ground? Harding says there are &ldquoonly a handful.&rdquo

      &ldquoPeople think that every time something is excavated and there are bodies, and they didn&rsquot know they were going to be there, it has to be a plague pit,&rdquo she says. &ldquoThe first point is that they were not scattered all over the greater London area: as far as emergency plague burials in pits, it was quite closely around the City and West End. The second is that most of them were known where they were. There were contemporary records of them. I don&rsquot think that there are a great many that nobody knew about.&rdquo

      Meanwhile, several of the most famous plague pits of lore, including those beneath Green Park and at Brompton Oratory, have no historical basis: aside from rumour, there&rsquos no evidence &mdash archaeological or otherwise &mdash that they ever existed.

      It&rsquos unclear how, in the popular imagination, so many have passed from legend into fact. But Necropolis author Catharine Arnold&rsquos admission that she heard about the Piccadilly Line plague pit in passing might provide a clue. Once it&rsquos in print, a rumour becomes real: several other people I spoke with pointed me to her book as a source.

      There is scarcely a railway line which does not run over a few graveyards

      The legend has only grown. Even in June 2016, when a passenger captured a video of an &ldquoapparition&rdquo seen on the Piccadilly Line between Knightsbridge and South Kensington, the tabloid Express ran a story about how paranormal investigators thought it could be the &ldquospirit of a victim of the Black Death.&rdquo That was treated a little sceptically. But no such scepticism applied to the basis for the ghost story: that the tunnel curved around the Brompton Oratory plague pit at all. &ldquoPlague pits actually influenced the direction of many London Underground tunnels, carved out 150 years ago, with lines often having to curve around mass burial grounds such as this one,&rdquo the story says confidently.

      But the blame can&rsquot only be laid on contemporary writers. Some of the confusion also comes from reliance on writers of the time. Daniel Defoe&rsquos drama Journal of a Plague Year, for example, lists a number of plague pits. But Defoe was a child at the time of the 1665 event, and though he billed his book as being a victim&rsquos eyewitness account, it is now generally considered to be a work of historical fiction.

      Carver pointed out how chroniclers of the Black Death of 1347-8 suggested that 50,000 plague victims were buried at Charterhouse Square. Two years ago, his team excavated there. &ldquoClearly it&rsquos a massive exaggeration, from what we&rsquove seen,&rdquo Carver says. &ldquoWe&rsquore thinking more like 5,000.&rdquo

      But that&rsquos not to say plague burials never happened &mdash or that they haven&rsquot ever involved London&rsquos underground lines.

      It was just much more recently than people think.

      Because the high-speed Crossrail tunnel is so deep, it avoids most of London&rsquos archaeology. The exceptions are where the tunnel enters the ground, plus the shafts and the stations.

      Crossrail archaeologist Carver says these exceptions added up to 40 spots in the city, all of which were investigated. Only two &mdash Charterhouse Square in 2013 and, in 2015, Liverpool Street Station &mdash turned up human remains.

      Neither was a surprise. At Charterhouse Square, for example, labourers had turned up bones long before Crossrail&rsquos dig: during work on the sewage system in 1834 and again in 1861 when building a railway at West Smithfield in 1865 (presumably the incident in the Standard article which the commissioners&rsquo clerk referred to) and again in 1885.

      &ldquoWhen it comes to human remains, it&rsquos illegal to disturb them&hellip without a licence,&rdquo Carver says. &ldquoSo when it comes to burial grounds, the first thing you have to do, when planning a line like Crossrail, is plot all the burial grounds we know about, historically &mdash and try and avoid them.&rdquo

      Still, he added, &ldquoIt&rsquos a minor consideration in terms of building a railway like Crossrail, because the most important thing is accessibility. You can&rsquot put a station where no one wants one.&rdquo

      Planners for High Speed 2, another high-speed rail network, are finding that now. Part of the project will include redevelopment of Euston Station, which calls for the excavation of St James&rsquos Gardens, an 18th-century cemetery-turned-park. &ldquoIt&rsquos an important heritage site. It&rsquos a shame if the engineers can&rsquot come up with an alternative,&rdquo Carver says. &ldquoBut you can guarantee that if they decide it&rsquos the only option, it&rsquoll be because it is.&rdquo

      The benefit, meanwhile, is that the projects allow for rare archaeological excavations in the heart of the city.

      Like the Charterhouse dig three years ago.

      Finding plague victims there wasn&rsquot a surprise. By 1346, the Black Death had begun its sweep of Europe. Historical records show that the government of London, wanting to prepare, pre-emptively purchased and set aside land in the area to use for burial when it arrived. Two years later, it did, making the site one of the &ldquohandful&rdquo of purpose-built emergency burial sites that Harding and others referred to.

      An extensive dig at East Smithfield in the 1980s excavated the remains of some 759 people &mdash a fraction of the burial ground&rsquos estimated 2,400 Black Death victims. In 2011, DNA tests confirmed they had bubonic plague.

      Just as interesting, though, was the care with which they were buried. Far from the idea of people being heaped in, the coffins were placed in neatly dug trenches, one some 410ft long.

      So when the Crossrail team came to do a test excavation in 2013 a stone&rsquos throw away, at West Smithfield, they knew what they might expect: the other (and older) of the two emergency burial grounds records showed to be in the area.

      And they were correct. Opening up a shaft just 18ft wide, they uncovered 25 skeletons. Testing a sample dated them to three different burial groups: 1348-9, 1360 and 1430. All three phases were confirmed to have samples of the bacteria that caused plague. Again, they were neatly buried.

      The Crossrail excavation was the first time that evidence of London&rsquos second emergency burial pit was firmly established. And &mdash despite the rumours of them being located, helter-skelter, across the city &mdash these are the only two purpose-built &lsquoplague pits&rsquo from the Black Death of 1348 ever to have been confirmed.

      The Crossrail digging didn&rsquot stop there.

      The second major Crossrail dig, for the ticket hall for Liverpool Street Station in summer 2015, has been tied to plague, too. But, for historians, in an even more exciting way.

      That&rsquos because while both the Black Death of 1348 and Great Plague of 1665 were devastating &mdash the Black Death is thought to have wiped out up to two-fifths of the London population, the Great Plague up to one-fifth &mdash the Great Plague is the one that most people associate with chaos, terror and plague pits.

      And yet those Great Plague pits remain elusive. In fact, no archaeological discovery of the 1665 epidemic&rsquos victims had been confirmed in London before.

      Until Crossrail&rsquos dig in 2015. Some 3,500 skeletons were unearthed at the site of the Bedlam cemetery, a 16th- and 17th-century burial ground now under Liverpool Street. About 42 of the individuals, though, were different from the rest. Rather than having been buried separately, they were in a single mass grave.

      Still, as with the Smithfield dead, they&rsquod been buried in coffins and rows &mdash even if the coffins having rotted over time made them now look like they&rsquod been heaped together.

      But they were stacked up to four deep, without any soil between them. In other words, they weren&rsquot grotesquely thrown in&hellip but they were buried in haste, and likely on the same day.

      This week, the DNA test results from the 'plague pit' burials at the coming Crossrail line (and near where the Central, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines converge on Liverpool Street) were announced. They were positive for the bacteria that causes bubonic plague.

      That makes those skeletons the only plague victims from the 1665 epidemic to be confirmed with DNA in the whole of the UK.

      &ldquoPart of the payback for the fact that we couldn&rsquot avoid it is we do get really important research,&rdquo Carver says. &ldquoIt&rsquos the first archaeological sample of any burial ground in the city of this date.&rdquo

      In both cases, when they began digging, Crossrail was well aware of what they would find &mdash and were able to excavate accordingly.

      But that hasn&rsquot always been the case.

      When I asked archaeologists at the Museum of London about times when London&rsquos transport construction hit &mdash or avoided &mdash human remains in London, they paused.

      &ldquoThe Eurostar extension,&rdquo blurted out Jelena Bekvalac, the museum&rsquos curator of human osteology. &ldquoOh,&rdquo groaned the two others, Roy Stephenson and Rebecca Redfern, in unison. &ldquoThat was ghastly!&rdquo

      In 2002, plans were underway to extend and renovate St Pancras station, including building a new terminal that could accommodate the new, 1300ft-long trains that would speed through the Channel Tunnel. The work would cut into the cemetery of St Pancras Old Church, just to the north of the station, affecting some 40,000 square feet of burial ground.

      &ldquoSo traumatising,&rdquo said Stephenson, who had been one of the archaeologists at the excavation. &ldquoIt started off well. You had osteologists on site. But it basically took too long, so they invoked the full tenant of the act [of Parliament, which was required to build] and removed the human remains in a more &mdash mechanical fashion.&rdquo

      Mechanical fashion? &ldquoYeah. I think there was a conveyor belt involved.&rdquo

      &ldquoThere was. And one of those pile drivers that you dig down, and just digs through coffins and plates and people,&rdquo Bekvalac said.

      The archaeologists had been under (now expired) confidentiality agreements, so only a couple of stories &mdash including one in the Evening Standard and one on the BBC &mdash seem to have made it to press, along with an official (and seemingly anaesthetised) book about the excavation.

      Meanwhile, according to the BBC, the company had been able to avoid the &ldquonormal special permission required when building work disturbs a cemetery.&rdquo

      The burial grounds of St Pancras Old Church had been disturbed before. Just a decade after the cemetery&rsquos 1854 closure, the Midland Railway cut across them. At the time, this caused a great deal of controversy &mdash making it the only example of human remains being moved for London&rsquos railways that most historians I spoke with had heard of. Like many other London cemeteries, the cemetery was infamously overstuffed. The work was messy, done at night, involving hacking through coffins with spade and pickaxe.

      One of those watching was the writer Thomas Hardy, who worked as an overseer for the Clerk of Works. He wrote a poem inspired by the scene which memorably began: &ldquoWe late-lamented, resting here, Are mixed to human jam, And each to each exclaims in fear, &lsquoI know not which I am!&rsquo&rdquo

      An estimated total of 7,403 bodies were exhumed at the time.

      Which meant that, when the St Pancras project began in 2002, those involved thought the burials had already been cleared.

      &ldquoPeople assumed that it had already been destroyed, and when it came to construction, it wasn&rsquot. So it was catch-up to get the archaeological team in place,&rdquo says Carver, who was also one of the archaeologists on the site. &ldquoIt was a lot of frantic negotiation &mdash with a lack of time to do it.&rdquo

      We late-lamented, resting here, Are mixed to human jam, And each to each exclaims in fear, &lsquoI know not which I am!&rsquo

      At one point, to speed everything up, archaeological excavation of the site was halted completely while machines dug through the soil.

      That event is part of why, Carver said, he never makes assumptions.

      On a recent afternoon, I walked past the gleaming glass-and-iron leviathan of St Pancras International terminal. About 300 yards up the road from the bustle of people and traffic was a small green hillock, walled in from the street, its ground starting some 3 or 4ft above the street level. But it wasn&rsquot a natural hill its height was from the number of people buried there.

      This, of course, was St Pancras Old Church. To the naked eye, its burial grounds appear like any other. Old tombstones dot the grass trees arch into the sky.

      But it&rsquos not. Tombstones cluster at the base of an ash tree: they were among those moved during the Midland Railway&rsquos construction, memorialised with the planting of the tree &mdash now known as the &lsquoHardy Tree&rsquo. In a nearby corner, 31 tombs are lined up in a row, seemingly moved from their original spot. Next to them are 16 rows of flat grave slabs, grown over with weeds, inscriptions mostly illegible. Brick walls cut off the grounds at clinical angles. Just beyond, railway tracks start their run to Europe.

      In the end, the popular urban legend doesn&rsquot hold up. The people who were buried here didn&rsquot die of plague &mdash though many likely died of other scourges like cholera, or smallpox. And their burial didn&rsquot alter the shape of London&rsquos railway lines.

      But they might have found the truth &mdash that their bones would be moved in the great, and ongoing, construction of London&rsquos elaborate transport networks &mdash even stranger.

      And those who remain in their original resting place don&rsquot hear how, every few minutes, a train rattles past, drowning out the silence.

      This story is a part of BBC Britain &ndash a series focused on exploring this extraordinary island, one story at a time. Readers outside of the UK can see every BBC Britain story by heading to the Britain homepage you also can see our latest stories by following us on Facebook and Twitter.


      Listed for each of the 270 stations are the line(s) serving it, local authority and the fare zone in which it is located, [note 1] the date it and any earlier main line service opened, previous names and passenger usage statistics in millions per year.

      Station Photograph Line(s) [*] Local authority Zone(s) [†] Opened [4] Main line
      Other name(s) [note 2] Usage [5]
      Acton Town District
      Ealing 3 1 July 1879 Mill Hill Park: 1879–1910 6.19
      Aldgate Metropolitan [a]
      City of London 1 18 November 1876 9.96
      Aldgate East Hammersmith & City [d]
      Tower Hamlets 1 6 October 1884
      resited 31 October 1938
      Commercial Road: Proposed before opening 14.15
      Alperton Piccadilly [h] Brent 4 28 June 1903 Perivale-Alperton: 1903–10 2.86
      Amersham Metropolitan Buckinghamshire 9 1 September 1892 Amersham: 1892–1922
      Amersham & Chesham Bois: 1922–34
      Angel Northern Islington 1 17 November 1901 17.71
      Archway Northern Islington 2 & 3 22 June 1907 Archway Tavern: Proposed before opening
      Highgate: 1907–39
      Archway (Highgate): 1939–41
      Highgate (Archway): 1941–47
      Arnos Grove Piccadilly Enfield 4 19 September 1932 Bowes Road: Proposed before opening [6] 4.44
      Arsenal Piccadilly Islington 2 15 December 1906 Gillespie Road: 1906–32
      Arsenal (Highbury Hill): 1932– suffix gradually dropped
      Baker Street Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      City of Westminster 1 10 January 1863 28.07
      Balham Northern Wandsworth 3 6 December 1926 13.06
      Bank Waterloo & City
      City of London 1 8 August 1898 City (W&C line): 1898–1940
      Lombard Street (Northern line): Proposed before opening
      [note 3]
      Barbican Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      City of London 1 23 December 1865 Aldersgate Street: 1865–1910
      Aldersgate: 1910–23
      Aldersgate & Barbican: 1923–68
      Barking District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Barking and Dagenham 4 2 June 1902 13 June 1854 18.13
      Barkingside Central Redbridge 4 31 May 1948 1 May 1903 1.58
      Barons Court District
      Hammersmith and Fulham 2 9 October 1905 6.82
      Bayswater District [c]
      City of Westminster 1 1 October 1868 Bayswater: 1868–1923
      Bayswater (Queen's Road) & Westbourne Grove: 1923–33
      Bayswater (Queen's Road): 1933–46
      Bayswater (Queensway): 1946– suffix gradually dropped
      Becontree District Barking and Dagenham 5 18 July 1932 28 June 1926 Gale Street: 1926–32 3.46
      Belsize Park Northern Camden 2 22 June 1907 Belsize: Proposed before opening 5.68
      Bermondsey Jubilee Southwark 2 17 September 1999 9.45
      Bethnal Green Central Tower Hamlets 2 4 December 1946 Bethnal: Proposed before opening 14.92
      Blackfriars District [i]
      City of London 1 30 May 1870 15.53
      Blackhorse Road Victoria Waltham Forest 3 1 September 1968 9.74
      Bond Street Central
      City of Westminster 1 24 September 1900 Davies Street: Proposed before opening
      Selfridge's: Proposed in 1909
      Borough Northern Southwark 1 18 December 1890 5.55
      Boston Manor Piccadilly [l] Ealing
      4 1 May 1883 Boston Road: 1883–1911 2.19
      Bounds Green Piccadilly Haringey 3 & 4 19 September 1932 Brownlow Road: Proposed before opening 5.99
      Bow Road District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Tower Hamlets 2 11 June 1902 5.23
      Brent Cross Northern Barnet 3 19 November 1923 Woodstock: Proposed before opening
      Brent: 1923–76
      Brixton Victoria Lambeth 2 23 July 1971 32.03
      Bromley-by-Bow District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Tower Hamlets 2 & 3 2 June 1902 31 March 1858 Bromley: 1858–1968 4.23
      Buckhurst Hill Central Epping Forest 5 21 November 1948 22 August 1856 1.86
      Burnt Oak Northern Barnet 4 27 October 1924 Sheaves Hill/Orange Hill/Deansbrook: Proposed before opening
      Burnt Oak: 1924–28
      Burnt Oak (Watling): 1928– suffix gradually dropped
      Caledonian Road Piccadilly Islington 2 15 December 1906 Barnsbury: Proposed before opening 5.60
      Camden Town Northern Camden 2 22 June 1907 Camden Road: Proposed before opening 20.50
      Canada Water Jubilee Southwark 2 17 September 1999 13.11
      Canary Wharf Jubilee Tower Hamlets 2 17 September 1999 47.69
      Canning Town Jubilee Newham 2 & 3 14 May 1999 14 June 1847 14.83
      Cannon Street District [i]
      City of London 1 6 October 1884 7.11
      Canons Park Jubilee [e] Harrow 5 10 December 1932 Canons Park (Edgware): 1932–33 2.98
      Chalfont & Latimer Metropolitan Buckinghamshire 8 8 July 1889 Chalfont Road: 1889–1915 1.77
      Chalk Farm Northern Camden 2 22 June 1907 Adelaide Road: Proposed before opening 5.45
      Chancery Lane Central City of London
      1 30 July 1900 Chancery Lane: 1900–34
      Chancery Lane (Grays Inn): 1934– suffix gradually dropped
      Charing Cross Bakerloo
      City of Westminster 1 10 March 1906 Trafalgar Square (Bakerloo line): 1906–79
      Charing Cross (Northern line): 1907–14
      Charing Cross (Strand) (Northern line): 1914–15
      Strand (Northern line): 1915–79
      Chesham Metropolitan Buckinghamshire 9 8 July 1889 1.17
      Chigwell Central Epping Forest 4 21 November 1948 1 May 1903 0.52
      Chiswick Park District Ealing 3 1 July 1879 Acton Green: 1879–87
      Chiswick Park & Acton Green: 1887–1910
      Chorleywood Metropolitan Three Rivers 7 8 July 1889 Chorley Wood 1889–1915
      Chorley Wood & Chenies: 1915–34
      Chorley Wood: 1934–64
      Clapham Common Northern Lambeth 2 3 June 1900 9.64
      Clapham North Northern Lambeth 2 3 June 1900 Clapham Road: 1900–26 6.14
      Clapham South Northern Wandsworth 2 & 3 13 September 1926 Nightingale Lane: Proposed before opening 8.10
      Cockfosters Piccadilly Enfield 5 31 July 1933 Trent Park: Proposed before opening 1.86
      Colindale Northern Barnet 4 18 August 1924 7.70
      Colliers Wood Northern Merton 3 13 September 1926 6.84
      Covent Garden Piccadilly City of Westminster 1 11 April 1907 16.55
      Croxley Metropolitan Three Rivers 7 2 November 1925 Croxley Green: 1925–49 1.12
      Dagenham East District Barking and Dagenham 5 2 June 1902 1885 Dagenham: 1888–1949 2.95
      Dagenham Heathway District Barking and Dagenham 5 12 September 1932 Heathway: 1932–1949 5.85
      Debden Central Epping Forest 6 25 September 1949 24 April 1865 Chigwell Road: 1865
      Chigwell Lane: 1865–1949
      Dollis Hill Jubilee [e] Brent 3 1 October 1909 4.02
      Ealing Broadway District
      Ealing 3 1 July 1879 16.09
      Ealing Common District
      Ealing 3 1 July 1879 Ealing Common: 1879–86
      Ealing Common and West Acton 1886–1910
      Earl's Court District
      Kensington and Chelsea 1 & 2 30 October 1871
      resited 1 February 1878
      East Acton Central Hammersmith and Fulham 2 3 August 1920 4.08
      East Finchley Northern Barnet 3 3 July 1939 22 August 1867 6.87
      East Ham District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Newham 3 & 4 2 June 1902 1858 13.01
      East Putney District Wandsworth 2 & 3 3 June 1889 6.45
      Eastcote Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Hillingdon 5 26 May 1906 2.83
      Edgware Northern Barnet 5 18 August 1924 4.92
      Edgware Road Bakerloo City of Westminster 1 15 June 1907 4.86
      Edgware Road Hammersmith & City [c] [d]
      City of Westminster 1 1 October 1863 6.74
      Elephant & Castle Northern
      Southwark 1 & 2 18 December 1890 19.75
      Elm Park District Havering 6 13 May 1935 3.14
      Embankment District [i]
      City of Westminster 1 30 May 1870 Charing Cross (District line): 1870–1915
      Embankment (Bakerloo line): 1906–14
      Charing Cross (Embankment) (Bakerloo & Northern lines): 1914–15
      Charing Cross: 1915–74
      Charing Cross Embankment: 1974–6
      Epping Central Epping Forest 6 25 September 1949 24 April 1865 4.08
      Euston Northern
      Camden 1 22 June 1907 Melton Street: Proposed before opening 41.09
      Euston Square Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      Camden 1 10 January 1863 Gower Street: 1863–1909 14.12
      Fairlop Central Redbridge 4 31 May 1948 1 May 1903 1.25
      Farringdon Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      Islington 1 10 January 1863
      resited 23 December 1865
      Farringdon Street: 1863–1922
      Farringdon & High Holborn: 1922–36
      Finchley Central Northern Barnet 4 14 April 1940 22 August 1867 Finchley & Hendon: 1867–72
      Finchley: 1872–96
      Finchley (Church End): 1896–1940
      Finchley Road Metropolitan
      Jubilee [f]
      Camden 2 30 June 1879 9.19
      Finsbury Park Piccadilly
      Islington 2 15 December 1906 33.40
      Fulham Broadway District Hammersmith and Fulham 2 1 March 1880 Walham Green: 1880–1952 8.82
      Gants Hill Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 Ilford North/Cranbrook: Proposed before opening 6.36
      Gloucester Road District [c]
      Kensington and Chelsea 1 1 October 1868 Brompton (Gloucester Road): 1868–1907 13.74
      Golders Green Northern Barnet 3 22 June 1907 7.90
      Goldhawk Road Hammersmith & City [m]
      Hammersmith and Fulham 2 1 April 1914 2.13
      Goodge Street Northern Camden 1 22 June 1907 Tottenham Court Road: 1907–08 8.51
      Grange Hill Central Redbridge 4 21 November 1948 1 May 1903 0.65
      Great Portland Street Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      City of Westminster 1 10 January 1863 Portland Road: 1863–1917
      Great Portland Street: 1917–23
      Great Portland Street & Regent's Park: 1923–33
      Greenford Central Ealing 4 30 June 1947 1 October 1904 4.17
      Green Park Piccadilly
      City of Westminster 1 15 December 1906 Dover Street: 1906–33 39.06
      Gunnersbury District Hounslow 3 1 June 1877 1 January 1869 Brentford Road: 1869–71 5.52
      Hainault Central Redbridge 4 31 May 1948 1 May 1903 3.64
      Hammersmith District
      Hammersmith and Fulham 2 9 September 1874 27.05
      Hammersmith Hammersmith & City [m]
      Hammersmith and Fulham 2 13 June 1864
      resited 1 December 1868
      Hampstead Northern Camden 2 & 3 22 June 1907 Heath Street: Proposed before opening 4.67
      Hanger Lane Central Ealing 3 30 June 1947 3.55
      Harlesden Bakerloo Brent 3 16 April 1917 15 June 1912 3.06
      Harrow & Wealdstone Bakerloo Harrow 5 16 April 1917 20 July 1837 Harrow: 1837–97 4.66
      Harrow-on-the-Hill Metropolitan Harrow 5 2 August 1880 15 March 1899 Harrow: 1880–94 10.70
      Hatton Cross Piccadilly Hillingdon 5 & 6 19 July 1975 3.24
      Heathrow Terminals 2 & 3 Piccadilly Hillingdon 6 16 December 1977 Heathrow Central: 1976–83
      Heathrow Central Terminals 1, 2, 3: 1983–86
      Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, 3: 1986-2016
      Heathrow Terminal 4 Piccadilly Hillingdon 6 12 April 1986 2.13
      Heathrow Terminal 5 Piccadilly Hillingdon 6 27 March 2008 4.48
      Hendon Central Northern Barnet 3 & 4 19 November 1923 7.19
      High Barnet Northern Barnet 5 14 April 1940 1 April 1872 4.05
      Highbury & Islington Victoria Islington 2 1 September 1968 28 June 1904 Highbury: 1867–1922 17.50
      Highgate Northern Haringey 3 19 January 1941 22 August 1867 5.65
      High Street Kensington District [c]
      Kensington and Chelsea 1 1 October 1868 Kensington: Proposed before opening 11.69
      Hillingdon Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Hillingdon 6 10 December 1923
      resited 6 December 1992
      Hillingdon: 1923–34
      Hillingdon (Swakeleys) 1934– suffix gradually dropped
      Holborn Central
      Camden 1 15 December 1906 Holborn: 1906–1933
      Holborn (Kingsway): 1933– suffix gradually dropped
      Holland Park Central Kensington and Chelsea 2 30 July 1900 Lansdown Road: Proposed before opening 3.72
      Holloway Road Piccadilly Islington 2 15 December 1906 Holloway: Proposed before opening 6.69
      Hornchurch District Havering 6 2 June 1902 1 May 1885 2.14
      Hounslow Central Piccadilly [l] Hounslow 4 1 April 1886 Heston Hounslow: 1886–1925 3.64
      Hounslow East Piccadilly [l] Hounslow 4 2 May 1909 Hounslow Town: 1909–25 3.92
      Hounslow West Piccadilly [l] Hounslow 5 21 July 1884 Hounslow Barracks: 1884–1925 3.53
      Hyde Park Corner Piccadilly City of Westminster 1 15 December 1906 4.44
      Ickenham Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Hillingdon 6 25 September 1905 1.12
      Kennington Northern Southwark 2 18 December 1890 New Street: Proposed before opening 5.51
      Kensal Green Bakerloo Brent 2 1 October 1916 2.49
      Kensington (Olympia) District Kensington and Chelsea 2 1 July 1864 27 May 1844 Kensington: 1844–68
      Kensington (Addison Road): 1868–1946
      Kentish Town Northern Camden 2 22 June 1907 8.12
      Kenton Bakerloo Brent
      4 16 April 1917 15 June 1912 1.89
      Kew Gardens District Richmond 3 & 4 1 June 1877 1 July 1869 3.83
      Kilburn Jubilee [e] Brent 2 24 November 1879 Kilburn and Brondesbury: 1879–1950 8.12
      Kilburn Park Bakerloo Brent 2 31 January 1915 3.29
      Kingsbury Jubilee [e] Brent 4 10 December 1932 4.55
      King's Cross St Pancras Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      Camden 1 10 January 1863
      Metropolitan line
      resited 9 March 1941
      King's Cross (Metropolitan line): 1863–1925
      King's Cross & St. Pancras (Metropolitan line): 1925–33
      King's Cross (Piccadilly line): 1906–27
      King's Cross for St. Pancras (Piccadilly line): 1927–33
      King's Cross for St. Pancras (Northern line): 1907–33
      Knightsbridge Piccadilly Kensington and Chelsea 1 15 December 1906 Sloane Street: Proposed before opening 16.53
      Ladbroke Grove Hammersmith & City [m]
      Kensington and Chelsea 2 13 June 1864 Notting Hill: 1864–80
      Notting Hill & Ladbroke Grove: 1880–1919
      Ladbroke Grove (North Kensington): 1919–38
      Lambeth North Bakerloo Lambeth 1 10 March 1906 Kennington Road: 1906
      Westminster Bridge Road: 1906–17
      Lancaster Gate Central City of Westminster 1 30 July 1900 Westbourne: Proposed before opening 6.63
      Latimer Road Hammersmith & City [m]
      Kensington and Chelsea 2 16 December 1868 6.63
      Leicester Square Piccadilly
      City of Westminster 1 15 December 1906 Cranbourn Street: Proposed before opening 34.56
      Leyton Central Waltham Forest 3 5 May 1947 22 August 1856 Low Leyton: 1856–68 11.26
      Leytonstone Central Waltham Forest 3 & 4 5 May 1947 22 August 1856 9.82
      Liverpool Street Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      City of London 1 1 February 1875
      resited 12 July 1875
      Bishopsgate: 1875–1909 67.20
      London Bridge Northern
      Southwark 1 25 February 1900 74.34
      Loughton Central Epping Forest 6 21 November 1948 22 August 1856 3.47
      Maida Vale Bakerloo City of Westminster 2 6 June 1915 Elgin Avenue: Proposed before opening 3.30
      Manor House Piccadilly Hackney
      2 & 3 19 September 1932 8.55
      Mansion House District [i]
      City of London 1 3 July 1871 6.79
      Marble Arch Central City of Westminster 1 30 July 1900 12.16
      Marylebone Bakerloo City of Westminster 1 27 March 1907 Lisson Grove/Marylebone: Proposed before opening
      Great Central: 1907–17
      Mile End District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Tower Hamlets 2 2 June 1902 14.97
      Mill Hill East Northern Barnet 4 18 May 1941 22 August 1867 Mill Hill: 1867–1928
      Bittacy Hill: Proposed 1940
      Monument District [i]
      City of London 1 6 October 1884 King William Street: Proposed before opening
      East Cheap: 1884
      [note 3]
      Moorgate Metropolitan [b]
      Hammersmith & City
      City of London 1 23 December 1865 Moorgate Street (Metropolitan line): 1865–1924 25.05
      Moor Park Metropolitan Three Rivers 6 & 7 9 May 1910 Sandy Lodge: 1910–23
      Moor Park & Sandy Lodge: 1923–50
      Morden Northern Merton 4 13 September 1926 North Morden: Proposed before opening 9.82
      Mornington Crescent Northern Camden 2 22 June 1907 Seymour Street: Proposed before opening 4.00
      Neasden Jubilee [e] Brent 3 2 August 1880 Kingsbury & Neasden: 1880–1910
      Neasden & Kingsbury: 1910–32
      Newbury Park Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 1 May 1903 5.08
      North Acton Central Ealing 2 & 3 5 November 1923 6.24
      North Ealing Piccadilly [h] Ealing 3 23 June 1903 0.88
      North Greenwich Jubilee Greenwich 2 & 3 14 May 1999 28.28
      North Harrow Metropolitan Harrow 5 22 March 1915 1.93
      North Wembley Bakerloo Brent 4 16 April 1917 15 June 1912 1.57
      Northfields Piccadilly [l] Ealing 3 16 April 1908
      resited 19 May 1932
      Northfield Halt: 1908–11
      Northfields & Little Ealing: 1911–32
      Northolt Central Ealing 5 21 November 1948 4.98
      Northwick Park Metropolitan Brent 4 28 June 1923 Northwick Park & Kenton: 1923–33 4.36
      Northwood Metropolitan Hillingdon 6 1 September 1887 2.74
      Northwood Hills Metropolitan Hillingdon 6 13 November 1933 1.90
      Notting Hill Gate District [c]
      Kensington and Chelsea 1 & 2 1 October 1868 15.07
      Oakwood Piccadilly Enfield 5 13 March 1933 East Barnet/Merryhills: Proposed before opening
      Enfield West: 1933–34
      Enfield West (Oakwood): 1934–46
      Old Street Northern Islington
      1 17 November 1901 27.11
      Osterley Piccadilly [l] Hounslow 4 1 May 1883
      resited 25 March 1934
      Osterley & Spring Grove: 1883–1934 2.18
      Oval Northern Lambeth 2 18 December 1890 Kennington Oval: Proposed before opening
      The Oval: 1890–94
      Oxford Circus Central
      City of Westminster 1 30 July 1900 78.07
      Paddington District [c]
      City of Westminster 1 1 October 1868 Paddington (Praed Street) (Circle line): 1868–1947 48.61
      [note 4]
      Paddington Hammersmith & City [m]
      City of Westminster 1 10 January 1863 Paddington (Bishop's Road): 1863–1933 48.61
      [note 4]
      Park Royal Piccadilly Ealing 3 23 June 1903
      resited 6 July 1931
      Park Royal & Tywford Abbey: 1903–31
      Park Royal: 1931–36
      Park Royal (Hanger Hill): 1936–47
      Parsons Green District Hammersmith and Fulham 2 1 March 1880 6.56
      Perivale Central Ealing 4 30 June 1947 2 May 1904 Perivale Halt: 1904–1947 2.44
      Piccadilly Circus Bakerloo
      City of Westminster 1 10 March 1906 38.40
      Pimlico Victoria City of Westminster 1 14 September 1972 10.81
      Pinner Metropolitan Harrow 5 25 May 1885 2.96
      Plaistow District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Newham 3 2 June 1902 31 March 1858 5.57
      Preston Road Metropolitan Brent 4 21 May 1908
      resited 3 January 1932
      Putney Bridge District Hammersmith and Fulham 2 1 March 1880 Putney Bridge & Fulham: 1880–1902
      Putney Bridge & Hurlingham: 1902–32
      Queen's Park Bakerloo Brent 2 11 February 1915 2 June 1879 Queen's Park (West Kilburn): 1879–1915 5.41
      Queensbury Jubilee [e] Brent 4 16 December 1934 4.11
      Queensway Central City of Westminster 1 30 July 1900 Queen's Road: 1900–46 8.25
      Ravenscourt Park District Hammersmith and Fulham 2 1 June 1877 1 January 1873 Shaftesbury Road: 1877–88 3.23
      Rayners Lane Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Harrow 5 26 May 1906 4.16
      Redbridge Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 Ilford West/Red House: Proposed before opening 2.80
      Regent's Park Bakerloo City of Westminster 1 10 March 1906 3.87
      Richmond District Richmond 4 1 June 1877 1 January 1869 8.08
      Rickmansworth Metropolitan Three Rivers 7 1 September 1887 2.39
      Roding Valley Central Epping Forest
      4 21 November 1948 3 February 1936 0.45
      Royal Oak Hammersmith & City [m]
      City of Westminster 2 30 October 1871 4 June 1838 2.61
      Ruislip Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Hillingdon 6 4 July 1904 1.93
      Ruislip Gardens Central Hillingdon 5 29 November 1948 9 July 1934 1.11
      Ruislip Manor Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Hillingdon 6 5 August 1912 1.89
      Russell Square Piccadilly Camden 1 15 December 1906 12.27
      St. James's Park District [i]
      City of Westminster 1 24 December 1868 14.48
      St. John's Wood Jubilee [g] City of Westminster 2 20 November 1939 Acacia Road: Proposed before opening 7.61
      St. Paul's Central City of London 1 30 July 1900 Newgate Street: Proposed before opening
      Post Office: 1900–37
      Seven Sisters Victoria Haringey 3 1 September 1968 17.02
      Shepherd's Bush Central Hammersmith and Fulham 2 30 July 1900 20.08
      Shepherd's Bush Market Hammersmith & City [m]
      Hammersmith and Fulham 2 13 June 1864
      resited 1 April 1914
      Shepherd's Bush: 1864–2008 3.38
      Sloane Square District [i]
      Kensington and Chelsea 1 24 December 1868 16.59
      Snaresbrook Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 22 August 1856 Snaresbrook & Wanstead: 1856–1947 2.38
      South Ealing Piccadilly [l] Ealing 3 1 May 1883 3.52
      South Harrow Piccadilly [h] Harrow 5 28 June 1903
      resited 5 July 1935
      South Kensington District [i]
      Kensington and Chelsea 1 24 December 1868 33.07
      South Kenton Bakerloo Brent 4 3 July 1933 1.42
      South Ruislip Central Hillingdon 5 23 November 1948 1 May 1908 Northolt Junction: 1908–32
      South Ruislip & Northolt Junction: 1932–47
      South Wimbledon Northern Merton 3 & 4 13 September 1926 Merton Grove: Proposed before opening
      South Wimbledon: 1926–28
      South Wimbledon (Merton): 1928– suffix gradually dropped
      South Woodford Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 22 August 1856 George Lane: 1856–1937
      South Woodford (George Lane): 1937–50
      Southfields District Wandsworth 3 3 June 1889 5.86
      Southgate Piccadilly Enfield 4 13 March 1933 Chase Side: Proposed before opening 5.43
      Southwark Jubilee Southwark 1 24 September 1999 14.95
      Stamford Brook District Hammersmith and Fulham 2 1 February 1912 2.75
      Stanmore Jubilee [e] Harrow 5 10 December 1932 3.85
      Stepney Green District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Tower Hamlets 2 23 June 1902 5.99
      Stockwell Northern
      Lambeth 2 18 December 1890 11.08
      Stonebridge Park Bakerloo Brent 3 16 April 1917 15 June 1912 2.43
      Stratford Central
      Newham 2 & 3 4 December 1946 1839 64.85
      Sudbury Hill Piccadilly [h] Ealing
      4 28 June 1903 1.91
      Sudbury Town Piccadilly [h] Brent
      4 28 June 1903 1.83
      Swiss Cottage Jubilee [g] Camden 2 20 November 1939 7.13
      Temple District [i]
      City of Westminster 1 30 May 1870 8.74
      Theydon Bois Central Epping Forest 6 25 September 1949 24 April 1865 Theydon: 1865 0.90
      Tooting Bec Northern Wandsworth 3 13 September 1926 Trinity Road (Tooting Bec): 1926–50 7.67
      Tooting Broadway Northern Wandsworth 3 13 September 1926 15.43
      Tottenham Court Road Central
      City of Westminster 1 30 July 1900 Oxford Street (Northern line): 1907–08 41.99
      Tottenham Hale Victoria Haringey 3 1 September 1968 14.03
      Totteridge & Whetstone Northern Barnet 4 14 April 1940 1 April 1872 Totteridge: 1872–74 2.52
      Tower Hill District [i]
      Tower Hamlets 1 25 September 1882
      resited 12 October 1884
      resited 5 February 1967
      Tower of London: 1882–84
      Mark Lane: 1884–1946
      Tufnell Park Northern Islington 2 22 June 1907 4.05
      Turnham Green District
      Hounslow 2 & 3 1 June 1877 1 January 1869 5.84
      Turnpike Lane Piccadilly Haringey 3 19 September 1932 Ducketts Green/Harringay: Proposed before opening 10.60
      Upminster District Havering 6 2 June 1902 1 May 1885 4.76
      Upminster Bridge District Havering 6 17 December 1934 1.11
      Upney District Barking and Dagenham 4 12 September 1932 2.55
      Upton Park District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Newham 3 2 June 1902 1877 9.71
      Uxbridge Metropolitan
      Piccadilly [k]
      Hillingdon 6 4 July 1904
      resited 4 December 1938
      Vauxhall Victoria Lambeth 1 & 2 23 July 1971 32.30
      Victoria District [i]
      City of Westminster 1 24 December 1868 85.47
      Walthamstow Central Victoria Waltham Forest 3 1 September 1968 18.92
      Wanstead Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 2.77
      Warren Street Northern
      Camden 1 22 June 1907 Euston Road: 1907–08 18.25
      Warwick Avenue Bakerloo City of Westminster 2 31 January 1915 Warrington Crescent: Proposed before opening 4.00
      Waterloo Waterloo & City
      Lambeth 1 10 March 1906 82.93
      Watford Metropolitan Watford 7 2 November 1925 1.92
      Wembley Central Bakerloo Brent 4 16 April 1917 1842 Sudbury: 1842–82
      Sudbury & Wembley: 1882–1910
      Wembley for Sudbury: 1910–48
      Wembley Park Metropolitan
      Jubilee [f]
      Brent 4 12 May 1894 15.42
      West Acton Central Ealing 3 5 November 1923 1.71
      West Brompton District Kensington and Chelsea 2 12 April 1869 Richmond Road: Proposed before opening 5.20
      West Finchley Northern Barnet 4 14 April 1940 1 March 1933 1.64
      West Ham District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Newham 2 & 3 2 June 1902 1901 West Ham: 1901–1924
      West Ham (Manor Road): 1924–69
      West Hampstead Jubilee [e] Camden 2 30 June 1879 10.49
      West Harrow Metropolitan Harrow 5 17 November 1913 1.28
      West Kensington District Hammersmith and Fulham 2 9 September 1874 North End (Fulham): 1874–77 4.87
      West Ruislip Central Hillingdon 6 21 November 1948 2 April 1906 Ruislip & Ickenham: 1906–47
      West Ruislip (for Ickenham): 1947– suffix gradually dropped
      Westbourne Park Hammersmith & City [m]
      City of Westminster 2 1 February 1866
      resited 1 November 1871
      Westminster District [i]
      City of Westminster 1 24 December 1868 Westminster Bridge: 1868–1907 22.56
      White City Central Hammersmith and Fulham 2 23 November 1947 9.56
      Whitechapel District [j]
      Hammersmith & City
      Tower Hamlets 2 1 October 1884 10 April 1876 Whitechapel (Mile End): 1884–1901 13.09
      Willesden Green Jubilee [e] Brent 2 & 3 24 November 1879 7.97
      Willesden Junction Bakerloo Brent 2 & 3 10 May 1915 5.13
      Wimbledon District Merton 3 3 June 1889 12.53
      Wimbledon Park District Merton 3 3 June 1889 2.15
      Wood Green Piccadilly Haringey 3 19 September 1932 Lordship Lane: Proposed before opening 12.13
      Wood Lane Hammersmith & City
      Hammersmith and Fulham 2 12 October 2008 4.74
      Woodford Central Redbridge 4 14 December 1947 22 August 1856 5.86
      Woodside Park Northern Barnet 4 12 April 1940 1 April 1872 Torrington Park, Woodside: 1872–82
      Woodside Park for North Finchley: 1882–1931
      Woodside Park and North Finchley for Woodside Garden Suburb: 1931–40

      Transport for London is currently planning an extension to the Northern line that will add two new stations to the network, both in Wandsworth.


      Early years Edit

      Sub-surface lines Edit

      The idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, [19] and the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854. [20] To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, and was later, in 1861, filled up. [21] The world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. [22] It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, and borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service. [23] The Metropolitan District Railway (commonly known as the District Railway) opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. [24] The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, [25] built using the cut and cover method. [26] Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Hounslow, [27] Uxbridge, [28] Richmond and Wimbledon [27] and the Metropolitan eventually extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles (80 km) from Baker Street and the centre of London. [29]

      Deep-level lines Edit

      For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches (3.10 m) diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street (close to today's Monument station) and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells. [30] The Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, [31] followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". [32] These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches (3.56 m) and 12 feet 2.5 inches (3.72 m), [33] whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot (4.9 m) diameter tunnels. [34]

      While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants. [35] The Metropolitan even encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. [36] There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for [sufferers of . ] asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. [35]

      Electrification Edit

      With the advent of electric Tube services (the Waterloo and City Railway and the Great Northern and City Railway), the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, and competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. [37] In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies co-operating because of the shared ownership of the inner circle. The District, needing to raise the finance necessary, found an investor in the American Charles Yerkes who favoured a DC system similar to that in use on the City & South London and Central London railways. The Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade, the DC system was adopted. [38]

      Underground Electric Railways Company era Edit

      Yerkes soon had control of the District Railway and established the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL) in 1902 to finance and operate three tube lines, the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway (Bakerloo), the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (Hampstead) and the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway, (Piccadilly), which all opened between 1906 and 1907. [39] [40] When the "Bakerloo" was so named in July 1906, The Railway Magazine called it an undignified "gutter title". [40] By 1907 the District and Metropolitan Railways had electrified the underground sections of their lines. [41]

      In January 1913, the UERL acquired the Central London Railway and the City & South London Railway, as well as many of London's bus and tram operators. [42] Only the Metropolitan Railway, along with its subsidiaries the Great Northern & City Railway and the East London Railway, and the Waterloo & City Railway, by then owned by the main line London and South Western Railway, remained outside the Underground Group's control. [43]

      A joint marketing agreement between most of the companies in the early years of the 20th century included maps, joint publicity, through ticketing and UNDERGROUND signs, incorporating the first bullseye symbol, [35] outside stations in Central London. [44] At the time, the term Underground was selected from three other proposed names 'Tube' and 'Electric' were both officially rejected. [35] Ironically, the term Tube was later adopted alongside the Underground. The Bakerloo line was extended north to Queen's Park to join a new electric line from Euston to Watford, but the First World War delayed construction and trains reached Watford Junction in 1917. During air raids in 1915 people used the tube stations as shelters. [45] An extension of the Central line west to Ealing was also delayed by the war and was completed in 1920. [46] After the war government-backed financial guarantees were used to expand the network and the tunnels of the City and South London and Hampstead railways were linked at Euston and Kennington [47] the combined service was not named the Northern line until later. [48] The Metropolitan promoted housing estates near the railway with the "Metro-land" brand and nine housing estates were built near stations on the line. Electrification was extended north from Harrow to Rickmansworth, and branches opened from Rickmansworth to Watford in 1925 and from Wembley Park to Stanmore in 1932. [49] [50] The Piccadilly line was extended north to Cockfosters and took over District line branches to Harrow (later Uxbridge) and Hounslow. [51]

      London Passenger Transport Board era Edit

      In 1933, most of London's underground railways, tramway and bus services were merged to form the London Passenger Transport Board, which used the London Transport brand. [52] The Waterloo & City Railway, which was by then in the ownership of the main line Southern Railway, remained with its existing owners. [53] In the same year that the London Passenger Transport Board was formed, Harry Beck's diagrammatic tube map first appeared. [54]

      In the following years, the outlying lines of the former Metropolitan Railway closed, the Brill Tramway in 1935, and the line from Quainton Road to Verney Junction in 1936. [55] The 1935–40 New Works Programme included the extension of the Central and Northern lines and the Bakerloo line to take over the Metropolitan's Stanmore branch. [56] The Second World War suspended these plans after the Bakerloo line had reached Stanmore and the Northern line High Barnet and Mill Hill East in 1941. [57] Following bombing in 1940, passenger services over the West London line were suspended, leaving Olympia exhibition centre without a railway service until a District line shuttle from Earl's Court began after the war. [58] After work restarted on the Central line extensions in east and west London, these were completed in 1949. [59]

      During the war many tube stations were used as air-raid shelters. [60] On 3 March 1943, a test of the air-raid warning sirens, together with the firing of a new type of anti-aircraft rocket, resulted in a crush of people attempting to take shelter in Bethnal Green Underground station. A total of 173 people, including 62 children, died, making this both the worst civilian disaster of the Second World War, and the largest loss of life in a single incident on the London Underground network. [61]

      London Transport Executive and Board era Edit

      On 1 January 1948, under the provisions of the Transport Act 1947, the London Passenger Transport Board was nationalised and renamed the London Transport Executive, becoming a subsidiary transport organisation of the British Transport Commission, which was formed on the same day. [62] [63] [64] Under the same act, the country's main line railways were also nationalised, and their reconstruction was given priority over the maintenance of the Underground and most of the unfinished plans of the pre-war New Works Programme were shelved or postponed. [65]

      The District line needed new trains and an unpainted aluminium train entered service in 1953, this becoming the standard for new trains. [66] In the early 1960s, the Metropolitan line was electrified as far as Amersham, British Railways providing services for the former Metropolitan line stations between Amersham and Aylesbury. [67] In 1962, the British Transport Commission was abolished, and the London Transport Executive was renamed the London Transport Board, reporting directly to the Minister of Transport. [63] [68] Also during the 1960s, the Victoria line was dug under central London and, unlike the earlier tunnels, did not follow the roads above. The line opened in 1968–71 with the trains being driven automatically and magnetically encoded tickets collected by automatic gates gave access to the platforms. [69]

      Greater London Council era Edit

      On 1 January 1970 responsibility for public transport within Greater London passed from central government to local government, in the form of the Greater London Council (GLC), and the London Transport Board was abolished. The London Transport brand continued to be used by the GLC. [70]

      On 28 February 1975, a southbound train on the Northern City Line failed to stop at its Moorgate terminus and crashed into the wall at the end of the tunnel, in the Moorgate tube crash. There were 43 deaths and 74 injuries, the greatest loss of life during peacetime on the London Underground. [71] In 1976 the Northern City Line was taken over by British Rail and linked up with the main line railway at Finsbury Park, a transfer that had already been planned prior to the accident. [72]

      In 1979 another new tube, the Jubilee line, named in honour of Queen Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee, took over the Stanmore branch from the Bakerloo line, linking it to a newly constructed tube between Baker Street and Charing Cross stations. [73] Under the control of the GLC, London Transport introduced a system of fare zones for buses and underground trains that cut the average fare in 1981. Fares increased following a legal challenge but the fare zones were retained, and in the mid-1980s the Travelcard and the Capitalcard were introduced. [74]

      London Regional Transport era Edit

      In 1984 control of London Buses and the London Underground passed back to central government with the creation of London Regional Transport (LRT), which reported directly to the Secretary of State for Transport, still retaining the London Transport brand. [75] One person operation had been planned in 1968, but conflict with the trade unions delayed introduction until the 1980s. [76]

      On 18 November 1987, fire broke out in an escalator at King's Cross St. Pancras tube station. The resulting fire cost the lives of 31 people and injured a further 100. London Underground were strongly criticised in the aftermath for their attitude to fires underground, and publication of the report into the fire led to the resignation of senior management of both London Underground and London Regional Transport. [77] To comply with new safety regulations issued as a result of the fire, and to combat graffiti, a train refurbishment project was launched in July 1991. [78] [79]

      In April 1994, the Waterloo & City Railway, by then owned by British Rail and known as the Waterloo & City line, was transferred to the London Underground. [53] In 1999, the Jubilee line was extended from Green Park station through Docklands to Stratford station, resulting in the closure of the short section of tunnel between Green Park and Charing Cross stations, and including the first stations on the London Underground to have platform edge doors. [80]

      Transport for London era Edit

      Transport for London (TfL) was created in 2000 as the integrated body responsible for London's transport system. TfL is part of the Greater London Authority and is constituted as a statutory corporation regulated under local government finance rules. [81] The TfL Board is appointed by the Mayor of London, who also sets the structure and level of public transport fares in London. The day-to-day running of the corporation is left to the Commissioner of Transport for London. [82]

      TfL eventually replaced London Regional Transport, and discontinued the use of the London Transport brand in favour of its own brand. The transfer of responsibility was staged, with transfer of control of London Underground delayed until July 2003, when London Underground Limited became an indirect subsidiary of TfL. [81] [83] Between 2000 and 2003, London Underground was reorganised in a Public-Private Partnership where private infrastructure companies (infracos) upgraded and maintained the railway. This was undertaken before control passed to TfL, who were opposed to the arrangement. [84] One infraco - Metronet - went into administration in 2007 and TfL took over the responsibilities, TfL taking over the other - Tube Lines - in 2010. [85]

      Electronic ticketing in the form of the contactless Oyster card was introduced in 2003. [86] London Underground services on the East London line ceased in 2007 so that it could be extended and converted to London Overground operation, [87] [88] and in December 2009 the Circle line changed from serving a closed loop around the centre of London to a spiral also serving Hammersmith. [89] Since September 2014, passengers have been able to use contactless bank cards on the Tube. [90] Their use has grown very quickly and now over a million contactless transactions are made on the Underground every day. [91]

      In 2020, passenger numbers fell significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic and 40 stations were temporarily closed. [92]

      Railway Edit

      As of 2017, the Underground serves 270 stations. [93] Sixteen Underground stations are outside London region, eight on the Metropolitan line and eight on the Central line. Of these, five (Amersham, Chalfont & Latimer, Chesham, and Chorleywood on the Metropolitan line, and Epping on the Central line), are beyond the M25 London Orbital motorway. Of the 32 London boroughs, six (Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Kingston, Lewisham and Sutton) are not served by the Underground network, while Hackney has Old Street (on the Northern line Bank branch) and Manor House (on the Piccadilly line) only just inside its boundaries. Lewisham used to be served by the East London line (stations at New Cross and New Cross Gate). The line and the stations were transferred to the London Overground network in 2010. [94]

      London Underground's eleven lines total 402 kilometres (250 mi) in length, [1] making it the seventh longest metro system in the world. These are made up of the sub-surface network and the deep-tube lines. [1] The Circle, District, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines form the sub-surface network, with railway tunnels just below the surface and of a similar size to those on British main lines, converging on a circular bi-directional loop around zone 1. The Hammersmith & City and Circle lines share stations and most of their track with each other, as well as with the Metropolitan and District lines. The Bakerloo, Central, Jubilee, Northern, Piccadilly, Victoria and Waterloo & City lines are deep-level tubes, with smaller trains that run in two circular tunnels (tubes) with a diameter about 11 feet 8 inches (3.56 m). These lines have the exclusive use of a pair of tracks, except for the Uxbridge branch of the Piccadilly line, which shares track with the District line between Acton Town and Hanger Lane Junction and with the Metropolitan line between Rayners Lane and Uxbridge and the Bakerloo line, which shares track with London Overground's Watford DC Line for its aboveground section north of Queen's Park. [95]

      Fifty-five per cent of the system runs on the surface. There are 20 miles (32 km) of cut-and-cover tunnel and 93 miles (150 km) of tube tunnel. [1] Many of the central London underground stations on deep-level tube routes are higher than the running lines to assist deceleration when arriving and acceleration when departing. [96] Trains generally run on the left-hand track. In some places, the tunnels are above each other (for example, the Central line east of St Paul's station), or the running tunnels are on the right (for example on the Victoria line between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras, to allow cross-platform interchange with the Northern line at Euston). [95] [97]

      The lines are electrified with a four-rail DC system: a conductor rail between the rails is energised at −210 V and a rail outside the running rails at +420 V, giving a potential difference of 630 V. On the sections of line shared with mainline trains, such as the District line from East Putney to Wimbledon and Gunnersbury to Richmond, and the Bakerloo line north of Queen's Park, the centre rail is bonded to the running rails. [98]

      The average speed on the Underground is 20.5 mph (33.0 km/h). [9] Outside the tunnels of central London, many lines' trains tend to travel at over 40 mph (64 km/h) in the suburban and countryside areas. The Metropolitan line can reach speeds of 62 mph (100 km/h). [99]

      Lines Edit

      The London Underground was used by 1.357 billion passengers in 2017/2018. [3]

      • West Ruislip
      • Ealing Broadway
      • Northolt
      • White City
      • North Acton
      • Hainault
      • Woodford
      • Epping
      • Loughton
      • Leytonstone
      • Newbury Park
      • High Street Kensington
      • Edgware Road
      • Tower Hill
      • Barking
      • Upminster
      • Edgware
      • High Barnet
      • Mill Hill East
      • Finchley Central
      • Golders Green
      • Acton Town
      • Hatton Cross
      • Heathrow Terminals 2 & 3
      • Heathrow Terminal 5
      • Northfields
      • Rayners Lane
      • Uxbridge
      1. ^ Known as the Central London before 1937. [48]
      2. ^ The Metropolitan and District railways joint inner circle service started in the shape of a horseshoe, a complete loop was formed in 1884 [103] and the current spiral in 2009. The line has been referred to as the Circle line at least since 1936 and first appeared separately on the tube map in 1948. [104]
      3. ^ Originally a joint Great Western and Metropolitan railways service, the line first appeared separately on the tube map in 1990. [87]
      4. ^ The name dates from 1937. [48]
      5. ^ Until 1994 the Waterloo & City line was operated by British Rail and its predecessors.

      Services using former and current main lines Edit

      The Underground uses several railways and alignments that were built by main-line railway companies.

      • Bakerloo line: Between Queen's Park and Harrow & Wealdstone this runs over the Watford DC Line also used by London Overground, alongside the London & North Western Railway (LNWR) main line that opened in 1837. The route was laid out by the LNWR in 1912–15 and is part of the Network Rail system.
      • Central line: The railway from just south of Leyton to just south of Loughton was built by Eastern Counties Railway in 1856 on the same alignment in use today. [107] The Underground also uses the line built in 1865 by the Great Eastern Railway (GER) between Loughton to Ongar via Epping. The connection to the main line south of Leyton was closed in 1970 and removed in 1972. The line from Epping to Ongar was closed in 1994 most of the line is in use today by the heritage Epping Ongar Railway. [107] The line between Newbury Park and Woodford junction (west of Roding Valley) via Hainault was built by the GER in 1903, the connections to the main line south of Newbury Park closing in 1947 (in the Ilford direction) and 1956 (in the Seven Kings direction). [107]
      • Central line: The line from just north of White City to Ealing Broadway was built in 1917 by the Great Western Railway (GWR) and passenger service introduced by the Underground in 1920. North Acton to West Ruislip was built by GWR on behalf of the Underground in 1947–8 alongside the pre-existing tracks from Old Oak Common junction towards High Wycombe and beyond, which date from 1904. [107] As of May 2013 [update] , the original Old Oak Common junction to South Ruislip route has one main-line train a day to and from Paddington. [108]
      • District line: South of Kensington Olympia short sections of the 1862 West London Railway (WLR) and its 1863 West London Extension Railway (WLER) were used when District extended from Earl's Court in 1872. The District had its own bay platform at Olympia built in 1958 along with track on the bed of the 1862–3 WLR/WLER northbound. The southbound WLR/WLER became the new northbound main line at that time, and a new southbound main-line track was built through the site of former goods yard. The 1872 junction closed in 1958, and a further connection to the WLR just south of Olympia closed in 1992. The branch is now segregated. [107]
      • District line: The line between Campbell Road junction (now closed), near Bromley-by-Bow, and Barking was built by the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway (LTSR) in 1858. The slow tracks were built 1903–05, when District services were extended from Bow Road (though there were no District services east of East Ham from 1905 to 1932). The slow tracks were shared with LTSR stopping and goods trains until segregated by 1962, when main-line trains stopped serving intermediate stations. [107]
      • District line: The railway from Barking to Upminster was built by LTSR in 1885 and the District extended over the route in 1902. District withdrew between 1905 and 1932, when the route was quadrupled. Main-line trains ceased serving intermediate stations in 1962, and the District line today only uses the 1932 slow tracks. [107]
      • District line: The westbound track between east of Ravenscourt Park and Turnham Green and Turnham Green to Richmond (also used by London Overground) follows the alignment of a railway built by the London & South Western Railway (LSWR) in 1869. The eastbound track between Turnham Green and east of Ravenscourt Park follows the alignment built in 1911 this was closed 1916 but was re-used when the Piccadilly line was extended in 1932. [107]
      • District line: The line between East Putney and Wimbledon was built by the LSWR in 1889. The last scheduled main-line service ran in 1941 [107] but it still sees a few through Waterloo passenger services at the start and end of the daily timetable. [109] The route is also used for scheduled ECS movements to/from Wimbledon Park depot and for Waterloo services diverted during disruptions and track closures elsewhere. : Between Paddington and Westbourne Park Underground station, the line runs alongside the main line. The Great Western main line opened in 1838, serving a temporary terminus the other side of Bishop's Road. When the current Paddington station opened in 1854, the line passed to the south of the old station. [107] On opening in 1864, the Hammersmith & City Railway (then part of the Metropolitan Railway) ran via the main line to a junction at Westbourne Park, until 1867 when two tracks opened to the south of the main line, with a crossing near Westbourne Bridge, Paddington. The current two tracks to the north of the main line and the subway east of Westbourne Park opened in 1878. [110] The Hammersmith & City route is now completely segregated from the main line. : The rail route between Canning Town and Stratford was built by the GER in 1846, with passenger services starting in 1847. The original alignment was quadrupled "in stages between 1860 and 1892" for freight services before the extra (western) tracks were lifted as traffic declined during the 20th century, and were re-laid for Jubilee line services that started in 1999. The current Docklands Light Railway (ex-North London line) uses the original eastern alignment and the Jubilee uses the western alignment. [107]
      • Northern line: The line from East Finchley to Mill Hill East was opened in 1867, and from Finchley Central to High Barnet in 1872, both by the Great Northern Railway. [107]
      • Piccadilly line: The westbound track between east of Ravenscourt Park and Turnham Green was built by LSWR in 1869, and originally used for eastbound main-line and District services. The eastbound track was built in 1911 it closed in 1916 but was re-used when the Piccadilly line was extended in 1932. [107]

      Main line services using LU tracks Edit

      Chiltern Railways shares track with the Metropolitan Line between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Amersham.

      Trains Edit

      London Underground trains come in two sizes, larger sub-surface trains and smaller deep-tube trains. [111] Since the early 1960s all passenger trains have been electric multiple units with sliding doors [112] and a train last ran with a guard in 2000. [113] All lines use fixed length trains with between six and eight cars, except for the Waterloo & City line that uses four cars. [114] New trains are designed for maximum number of standing passengers and for speed of access to the cars and have regenerative braking and public address systems. [115] Since 1999 all new stock has had to comply with accessibility regulations that require such things as access and room for wheelchairs, and the size and location of door controls. All underground trains are required to comply with The Rail Vehicle Accessibility (Non Interoperable Rail System) Regulations 2010 (RVAR 2010) by 2020. [116]

      Stock on sub-surface lines is identified by a letter (such as S Stock, used on the Metropolitan line), while tube stock is identified by the year of intended introduction [117] (for example, 1996 Stock, used on the Jubilee line).

      Depots Edit

      The Underground is served by the following depots:

        : Stonebridge Park, Queen's Park, London Road : Hainault, Ruislip, White City : Hammersmith : Ealing Common, Hammersmith, Upminster : Hammersmith : Neasden, Stratford Market : Neasden : Edgware, Golders Green, Highgate, Morden : Cockfosters, Northfields : Northumberland Park : Waterloo
    • London Underground: Acton Works, Lillie Bridge
    • Disused and abandoned stations Edit

      In the years since the first parts of the London Underground opened, many stations and routes have been closed. Some stations were closed because of low passenger numbers rendering them uneconomical some became redundant after lines were re-routed or replacements were constructed and others are no longer served by the Underground but remain open to National Rail main line services. In some cases, such as Aldwych, the buildings remain and are used for other purposes. In others, such as British Museum, all evidence of the station has been lost through demolition.

      Ventilation and cooling Edit

      When the Bakerloo line opened in 1906 it was advertised with a maximum temperature of 60 °F (16 °C), but over time the tube tunnels have warmed up. [118] In 1938 approval was given for a ventilation improvement programme, and a refrigeration unit was installed in a lift shaft at Tottenham Court Road. [118] Temperatures of 47 °C (117 °F) were reported in the 2006 European heat wave. [119] It was claimed in 2002 that, if animals were being transported, temperatures on the Tube would break European Commission animal welfare laws. [120] A 2000 study reported that air quality was seventy-three times worse than at street level, with a passenger breathing the same mass of particulates during a twenty-minute journey on the Northern line as when smoking a cigarette. [121] [122] The main purpose of the London Underground's ventilation fans is to extract hot air from the tunnels, [118] and fans across the network are being refurbished, although complaints of noise from local residents preclude their use at full power at night. [123]

      In June 2006 a groundwater cooling system was installed at Victoria station. [124] In 2012, air-cooling units were installed on platforms at Green Park station using cool deep groundwater and at Oxford Circus using chiller units at the top of an adjacent building. [125] New air-conditioned trains are being introduced on the sub-surface lines, but space is limited on tube trains for air-conditioning units and these would heat the tunnels even more. The Deep Tube Programme, investigating replacing the trains for the Bakerloo, Central, Waterloo and City and Piccadilly lines, is looking for trains with better energy conservation and regenerative braking, on which it might be possible to install a form of air conditioning. [115] [126]

      In the original Tube design, trains passing through close fitting tunnels act as pistons to create air pressure gradients between stations. This pressure difference drives ventilation between platforms and the surface exits through the passenger foot network. This system depends on adequate cross sectional area of the airspace above the passengers’ heads in the foot tunnels and escalators, where laminar airflow is proportional to the fourth power of the radius, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. It also depends on an absence of turbulence in the tunnel headspace. In many stations the ventilation system is now ineffective because of alterations that reduce tunnel diameters and increase turbulence. An example is Green Park tube station, where false ceiling panels attached to metal frames have been installed that reduce the above-head airspace diameter by more than half in many parts. This has the effect of reducing laminar airflow by 94%.

      Originally air turbulence was kept to a minimum by keeping all signage flat to the tunnel walls. Now the ventilation space above head height is crowded with ducting, conduits, cameras, speakers and equipment acting as a baffle plates with predictable reductions in flow. [127] Often electronic signs have their flat surface at right angles to the main air flow, causing choked flow. Temporary sign boards that stand at the top of escalators also maximise turbulence. The alterations to the ventilation system are important, not only to heat exchange, but also the quality of the air at platform level, particularly given its asbestos content. [128]

      Lifts and escalators Edit

      Originally access to the deep-tube platforms was by a lift. [129] Each lift was staffed, and at some quiet stations in the 1920s the ticket office was moved into the lift, or it was arranged that the lift could be controlled from the ticket office. [130] The first escalator on the London Underground was installed in 1911 between the District and Piccadilly platforms at Earl's Court and from the following year new deep-level stations were provided with escalators instead of lifts. [131] The escalators had a diagonal shunt at the top landing. [131] [132] In 1921 a recorded voice instructed passengers to stand on the right and signs followed in the Second World War. [133] Travellers were asked to stand on the right so that anyone wishing to overtake them would have a clear passage on the left side of the escalator. [134] The first 'comb' type escalator was installed in 1924 at Clapham Common. [131] In the 1920s and 1930s many lifts were replaced by escalators. [135] After the fatal 1987 King's Cross fire, all wooden escalators were replaced with metal ones and the mechanisms are regularly degreased to lower the potential for fires. [136] The only wooden escalator not to be replaced was at Greenford station, which remained until March 2014 when TfL replaced it with the first incline lift on the UK transport network in October 2015. [137]

      There are 426 escalators on the London Underground system and the longest, at 60 metres (200 ft), is at Angel. The shortest, at Stratford, gives a vertical rise of 4.1 metres (13 ft). There are 184 lifts, [138] and numbers have increased in recent years because of investment making tube stations accessible. Over 28 stations will have lifts installed over the next 10 years, bring the total of step-free stations to over 100. [139]

      Wi-Fi and mobile phone reception Edit

      In mid-2012 London Underground, in partnership with Virgin Media, tried out Wi-Fi hot spots in many stations, but not in the tunnels, that allowed passengers free internet access. The free trial proved successful and was extended to the end of 2012 [140] whereupon it switched to a service freely available to subscribers to Virgin Media and others, or as a paid-for service. [141] It was not previously possible to use mobile phones on most parts of the Underground (excluding services running overground or occasionally subsurface, depending on the phone and carrier) using native 2G, 3G or 4G networks, and a project to extend coverage before the 2012 Olympics was abandoned because of commercial and technical difficulties. [142] This partially changed in March 2020, when 4G signal was made available on parts of the Jubilee line, between Westminster and Canning Town, throughout the stations and tunnels. [143] UK subscribers to the Three mobile network can use the [144] InTouch [145] app to route their voice calls and texts messages via the Virgin Media Wifi network at 138 London Transport stations. [146] The EE network also has recently released a WiFi calling feature available on the iPhone. [147]

      Under construction line extensions Edit

      Northern line extension to Battersea Power Station Edit

      The Northern Line is being extended from Kennington to Battersea Power Station via Nine Elms, serving the Battersea Power Station and Nine Elms development areas. In April 2013, Transport for London applied for the legal powers of a Transport and Works Act Order to proceed with the extension. Preparation works started in early 2015. The main tunnelling was completed in November 2017, having started in April. The extension is due to open in late 2021. [148] [149]

      Provision has been made for a possible future extension to Clapham Junction by notifying the London Borough of Wandsworth of a reserved course under Battersea Park and subsequent streets. [150]

      Proposed line extensions Edit

      Croxley Rail Link Edit

      The Croxley Rail Link involves re-routing the Metropolitan line's Watford branch from the current terminus at Watford over part of the disused Croxley Green branch line to Watford Junction with stations at Cassiobridge, Watford Vicarage Road and Watford High Street (which is currently only a part of London Overground). Funding was agreed in December 2011, [151] and the final approval for the extension was given on 24 July 2013, [152] with the aim of completion by 2020.

      In 2015, TfL took over responsibility for designing and building the extension from Hertfordshire County Council, and after further detailed design work concluded that an additional £50m would be needed. As of November 2017, the project is on hold awaiting additional funding. [153]

      Bakerloo line extension to Lewisham Edit

      In 1931, the extension of the Bakerloo line from Elephant & Castle to Camberwell was approved, with stations at Albany Road and an interchange at Denmark Hill. With post-war austerity, the plan was abandoned. In 2006, Ken Livingstone, the then Mayor of London, announced that within twenty years Camberwell would have a tube station. [154] Plans for an extension from Elephant & Castle to Lewisham via the Old Kent Road and New Cross Gate are currently being developed by Transport for London, with possible completion by 2029. [155]

      Bakerloo line extension to Watford Junction Edit

      In 2007, as part of the planning for the transfer of the North London line to what became London Overground, TfL proposed re-extending the Bakerloo line to Watford Junction. [156] [157]

      Central line extension to Uxbridge Edit

      In 2011, the London Borough of Hillingdon has proposed that the Central line be extended from West Ruislip to Uxbridge via Ickenham, claiming this would cut traffic on the A40 in the area. [158]

      Euston to Canary Wharf line Edit

      According to the New Civil Engineer, the Canary Wharf Group has suggested the construction of a new rail line between Euston and Canary Wharf. The proposal is being considered by the government. [159]

      Infrastructure Edit

      • Bakerloo line – The 36 1972-stock trains on the Bakerloo line have already exceeded their original design life of 40 years. London Underground is therefore extending their operational life by making major repairs to many of the trains to maintain reliability. The Bakerloo line will be part of the New Tube for London Project. This will replace the existing fleet with new air-cooled articulated trains and a new signalling system to allow Automatic Train Operation. The line is predicted to run a maximum of 27 trains per hour, a 25% increase from the current 21-trains-per-hour peak service. [160][161]
      • Central line – The Central line was the first line to be modernised in the 1990s, with 85 new 1992-stock trains and a new automatic signalling system installed to allow Automatic Train Operation. The line runs 34 trains per hour for half an hour in the morning peak but is unable to operate more frequently because of a lack of additional trains. The 85 existing 1992-stock trains are the most unreliable on the London Underground as they are equipped with the first generation of solid state direct current thyristor control traction equipment. The trains often break down, have to be withdrawn from service at short notice and at times are not available when required, leading to gaps in service at peak times. Although relatively modern and well within their design life, the trains need work in the medium term to ensure the continued reliability of the traction control equipment and maintain fleet serviceability until renewal, which is expected between 2028 and 2032. Major work is to be undertaken on the fleet to ensure their continued reliability with brakes, traction control systems, doors, automatic control systems being repaired or replaced among other components. The Central line will be part of the New Tube for London Project. This will replace the existing fleet with new air-cooled walkthrough trains and a new more up-to-date automatic signalling system. The line is predicted to run 36 trains per hour, a 25% increase compared to the present service of 34 trains for busiest 30 minutes in the morning and evening peaks and the 27–30 train per hour service for the rest of the peak. [160][162][163]
      • Jubilee line – The signalling system on the Jubilee line has been replaced to increase capacity on the line by 20%—the line now runs 30 trains per hour at peak times, compared to the previous 24 trains per hour. Similarly to the Victoria line the service frequency is planned to increase to 36 trains per hour. To enable this, ventilation, power supply and control and signalling systems will be adapted and modified to allow the increase in frequency. London Underground also plans to add up to an additional 18 trains to the current fleet of 63 trains of 1996 stock. [164][165]
      • Northern line – The signalling system on the Northern line has also been replaced to increase capacity on the line by 20%, as the line now runs 24 trains per hour at peak times, compared to 20 previously. Capacity can be increased further if the operation of the Charing Cross and Bank branches are separated. To enable this up to 50 additional trains will be built in addition to the current 106 1995 stock. The five trains will be required for the proposed Northern line extension and 45 to increase frequencies on the rest of the line. This combined with the segregation of trains at Camden Town junction will allow 30–36 trains per hour compared to 24 trains per hour currently. [166][167]
      • Piccadilly line – The eighty-six 1973 stock trains that operate on the Piccadilly line are some of the most reliable trains on the London Underground. The trains have already exceeded their design life of around 40 years and are in need of replacement. The Piccadilly line will be part of the New Tube for London Project. This will replace the existing fleet with new air-cooled walkthrough trains and a new signalling system to allow Automatic Train Operation. The line is predicted to run 30–36 trains per hour up to a 60% increase compared to the 24/25 train per hour service provided today. The Piccadilly will be the first line to be upgraded as part of the New Tube for London Project as passenger usage has increased over recent years and is expected to increase further. This line is important in this project because it does not provide service that is as frequent a service as other lines. [160]
      • Subsurface lines (District, Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City and Circle) – New S Stock trains have been introduced on the sub-surface (District, Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City and Circle) lines. These were all delivered by 2017. 191 trains have been introduced or are being built: 58 for the Metropolitan line and 133 for the Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines. The track, electrical supply and signalling systems are also being upgraded in a programme to increase peak-hour capacity. The replacement of the signalling system and the introduction of Automatic Train Operation/Control is scheduled for 2019–22. A control room for the sub-surface network has been built in Hammersmith and an automatic train control (ATC) system is to replace aging signalling equipment dating from between the mid-1920s and late 1980s, such as the signal cabin at Edgware Road, control room at Earl's Court and signalling centre at Baker Street. Bombardier won the contract in June 2011 but was released by agreement in December 2013, and London Underground has now issued another signalling contract, with Thales. [168][169][170]
      • Victoria line – The signalling system on the Victoria line has been replaced to increase capacity on the line by around 25% the line now runs up to 36 trains per hour compared to 27–28 previously. The trains have been replaced with 47 new higher-capacity 2009-stock trains. The peak frequency was increased to 36 trains per hour in 2016 after track works were completed to the layout of the points at Walthamstow Central crossover, which transfers northbound trains to the southbound line for their return journey. This resulted in a 40% increase in capacity between Seven Sisters and Walthamstow Central. [171][172]
      • Waterloo & City line – The line was upgraded with five new 1992-stock trains in the early 1990s, at the same time as the Central line was upgraded. The line operates under traditional signalling and does not use Automatic Train Operation. The line will be part of the New Tube for London Project. This will replace the existing fleet with new air-cooled walkthrough trains and a new signaling system to allow Automatic Train Operation. The line is predicted to run 30 trains per hour, up to a 50% increase compared to the current 21-trains-per-hour service. The line may also be one of the first to be upgraded, alongside the Piccadilly line, with new trains, systems and platform-edge doors to test the systems before the Central and Bakerloo lines are upgraded. [160]

      New trains for deep-level lines Edit

      In mid-2014 Transport for London issued a tender for up to 18 trains for the Jubilee line and up to 50 trains for the Northern line. These would be used to increase frequencies and cover the Battersea extension on the Northern line. [173]

      In early 2014 the Bakerloo, Central, Piccadilly and Waterloo & City line rolling-stock replacement project was renamed New Tube for London (NTfL) and moved from the feasibility stage to the design and specification stage. The study had showed that, with new generation trains and re-signalling:

      • Piccadilly line capacity could be increased by 60% with 33 trains per hour (tph) at peak times by 2025.
      • Central line capacity increased by 25% with 33 tph at peak times by 2030.
      • Waterloo & City line capacity increased by 50% by 2032, after the track at Waterloo station is remodelled.
      • Bakerloo line capacity could be increased by 25% with 27 tph at peak times by 2033.

      The project is estimated to cost £16.42 billon (£9.86 bn at 2013 prices). A notice was published on 28 February 2014 in the Official Journal of the European Union asking for expressions of interest in building the trains. [174] [175] On 9 October 2014 TFL published a shortlist of those (Alstom, Siemens, Hitachi, CAF and Bombardier) who had expressed an interest in supplying 250 trains for between £1.0 billion and £2.5 billion, and on the same day opened an exhibition with a design by PriestmanGoode. [176] [177] The fully automated trains may be able to run without drivers, [178] but the ASLEF and RMT trade unions that represent the drivers strongly oppose this, saying it would affect safety. [179] The invitation to tender for the trains was issued in January 2016 [180] the specifications for the Piccadilly line infrastructure are expected in 2016, [174] [175] and the first train is due to run on the Piccadilly line in 2023. [181] Siemens Mobility's Inspiro design was selected in June 2018 in a £1.5 billion contract. [182]

      Ticketing Edit

      The Underground received £2.669 billion in fares in 2016/17 and uses Transport for London's zonal fare system to calculate fares. [183] There are nine zones, zone 1 being the central zone, which includes the loop of the Circle line with a few stations to the south of River Thames. The only London Underground stations in Zones 7 to 9 are on the Metropolitan line beyond Moor Park, outside London region. Some stations are in two zones, and the cheapest fare applies. [184] Paper tickets, the contactless Oyster cards, contactless debit or credit cards [185] and Apple Pay [186] and Android Pay [187] smartphones and watches can be used for travel. [188] Single and return tickets are available in either format, but Travelcards (season tickets) for longer than a day are available only on Oyster cards. [189] [190] [191]

      TfL introduced the Oyster card in 2003 this is a pre-payment smartcard with an embedded contactless RFID chip. [192] It can be loaded with Travelcards and used on the Underground, the Overground, buses, trams, the Docklands Light Railway, and National Rail services within London. [193] Fares for single journeys are cheaper than paper tickets, and a daily cap limits the total cost in a day to the price of a Day Travelcard. [194] The Oyster card must be 'touched in' at the start and end of a journey, otherwise it is regarded as 'incomplete' and the maximum fare is charged. [195] In March 2012 the cost of this in the previous year to travellers was £66.5 million. [196]

      In 2014, TfL became the first public transport provider in the world to accept payment from contactless bank cards. [14] The Underground first started accepting contactless debit and credit cards in September 2014. [13] This was followed by the adoption of Apple Pay in 2015 [186] and Android Pay in 2016, [187] allowing payment using a contactless-enabled phone or smartwatch. Over 500 million journeys have taken place using contactless, and TfL has become one of Europe's largest contactless merchants, with around 1 in 10 contactless transactions in the UK taking place on across the TfL network. [14] This technology, developed in-house by TfL, [197] has been licensed to other major cities like New York City [198] and Boston. [199]

      A concessionary fare scheme is operated by London Councils for residents who are disabled or meet certain age criteria. [200] Residents born before 1951 were eligible after their 60th birthday, whereas those born in 1955 will need to wait until they are 66. [201] Called a "Freedom Pass" it allows free travel on TfL-operated routes at all times and is valid on some National Rail services within London at weekends and after 09:30 on Monday to Fridays. [202] Since 2010, the Freedom Pass has included an embedded holder's photograph it lasts five years between renewals. [203]

      In addition to automatic and staffed faregates at stations, the Underground also operates on a proof-of-payment system. The system is patrolled by both uniformed and plain-clothes fare inspectors with hand-held Oyster-card readers. Passengers travelling without a valid ticket must pay a penalty fare of £80 (£40 if paid within 21 days) and can be prosecuted for fare evasion under the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 and Transport for London Byelaws. [204] [205]

      Hours of operation Edit

      The tube closes overnight during the week, but since 2016, the Central, Jubilee, Northern, Piccadilly, and Victoria lines, as well as a short section of the London Overground have operated all night on Friday and Saturday nights. The first trains run from about 05:00 and the last trains until just after 01:00, with later starting times on Sunday mornings. [206] [207] The nightly closures are used for maintenance, [206] but some lines stay open on New Year's Eve [208] and run for longer hours during major public events such as the 2012 London Olympics. [209] Some lines are occasionally closed for scheduled engineering work at weekends. [210]

      The Underground runs a limited service on Christmas Eve with some lines closing early, and does not operate on Christmas Day. [208] Since 2010 a dispute between London Underground and trade unions over holiday pay has resulted in a limited service on Boxing Day. [211]

      Night Tube Edit

      On 19 August 2016, London Underground launched a 24-hour service on the Victoria and Central lines with plans in place to extend this to the Piccadilly, Northern and Jubilee lines starting on Friday morning and continuing right through until Sunday evening. [212] The Night Tube proposal was originally scheduled to start on 12 September 2015, following completion of upgrades, but in August 2015 it was announced that the start date for the Night Tube had been pushed back because of ongoing talks about contract terms between trade unions and London Underground. [213] [214] On 23 May 2016 it was announced that the night service would launch on 19 August 2016 for the Central and Victoria lines. The service operates on the:

      • Central line: between Ealing Broadway and Hainault via Newbury Park or Loughton. No service on the West Ruislip Branch, between Woodford and Hainault via Grange Hill or between Loughton and Epping.
      • Northern line: between Morden and Edgware / High Barnet via Charing Cross. No service on Mill Hill East or Bank branches.
      • Piccadilly line: between Cockfosters and Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, 3 and 5. No service to Terminal 4 or between Acton Town and Uxbridge.
      • Jubilee line: Full line – Stratford to Stanmore.
      • Victoria line: Full line – Walthamstow Central to Brixton.

      The Jubilee, Piccadilly and Victoria lines, and the Central line between White City and Leytonstone, operate at 10-minute intervals. The Central line operates at 20-minute intervals between Leytonstone and Hainault, between Leytonstone and Loughton, and between White City and Ealing Broadway. The Northern line operates at roughly 8-minute intervals between Morden and Camden Town via Charing Cross, and at 15-minute intervals between Camden Town and Edgware and between Camden Town and High Barnet. [215]

      Night Tube services were suspended in March 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. [216]

      Accessibility Edit

      The gap between a train and the platform edge at Victoria. "Mind the gap" signs and announcements have been made at stations with curved platforms since 1926 and recorded messages have been used since the late 1960s. [56]

      A wheelchair user on the Tube train

      Accessibility for people with limited mobility was not considered when most of the system was built, and before 1993 fire regulations prohibited wheelchairs on the Underground. [217] The stations on the Jubilee Line Extension, opened in 1999, were the first stations on the system designed with accessibility in mind, but retrofitting accessibility features to the older stations is a major investment that is planned to take over twenty years. [218] A 2010 London Assembly report concluded that over 10% of people in London had reduced mobility [219] and, with an aging population, numbers will increase in the future. [220]

      The standard issue tube map indicates stations that are step-free from street to platforms. There can also be a step from platform to train as large as 12 inches (300 mm) and a gap between the train and curved platforms, and these distances are marked on the map. Access from platform to train at some stations can be assisted using a boarding ramp operated by staff, and a section has been raised on some platforms to reduce the step. [221] [222]

      As of April 2021 [update] , there are 82 stations with step-free access from platform to train, [139] [223] and there are plans to provide step-free access at another 19 stations by 2024. [224] By 2016 a third of stations had platform humps that reduce the step from platform to train. [225] New trains, such as those being introduced on the sub-surface network, have access and room for wheelchairs, improved audio and visual information systems and accessible door controls. [225] [116]

      Delays and overcrowding Edit

      During peak hours, stations can get so crowded that they need to be closed. Passengers may not get on the first train [226] and the majority of passengers do not find a seat on their trains, [227] some trains having more than four passengers every square metre. [228] When asked, passengers report overcrowding as the aspect of the network that they are least satisfied with, and overcrowding has been linked to poor productivity and potential poor heart health. [229] Capacity increases have been overtaken by increased demand, and peak overcrowding has increased by 16 percent since 2004/5. [230]

      Compared with 2003/4, the reliability of the network had increased in 2010/11, with lost customer hours reduced from 54 million to 40 million. [231] Passengers are entitled to a refund if their journey is delayed by 15 minutes or more due to circumstances within the control of TfL, [232] and in 2010, 330,000 passengers of a potential 11 million Tube passengers claimed compensation for delays. [233] Mobile phone apps and services have been developed to help passengers claim their refund more efficiently. [234]

      Safety Edit

      London Underground is authorised to operate trains by the Office of Rail Regulation. As at 19 March 2013 [update] there had been 310 days since the last major incident, [235] when a passenger had died after falling on the track. [236] As of 2015 [update] there have been nine consecutive years in which no employee fatalities have occurred. [237] A special staff training facility was opened at West Ashfield tube station in TFL's Ashfield House, West Kensington in 2010 at a cost of £800,000. Meanwhile, Mayor of London Boris Johnson decided it should be demolished along with the Earls Court Exhibition Centre as part of Europe's biggest regeneration scheme. [238]

      In November 2011 it was reported that 80 people had died by suicide in the previous year on the London Underground, up from 46 in 2000. [239] Most platforms at deep tube stations have pits, often referred to as 'suicide pits', beneath the track. These were constructed in 1926 to aid drainage of water from the platforms, but also halve the likelihood of a fatality when a passenger falls or jumps in front of a train. [240] [241] [242]

      The Tube Challenge Edit

      The Tube Challenge is the competition for the fastest time to travel to all London Underground stations, tracked by Guinness World Records since 1960. The goal is to visit all the stations on the system, but not necessarily using all the lines participants may connect between stations on foot, or by using other forms of public transport.

      As of 2019, the record for fastest completion was held by Steve Wilson (UK) and AJ (nationality and full name unknown), who completed the challenge in 15 hours, 45 minutes and 38 seconds on 21 May 2015. [243]

      Map Edit

      Early maps of the Metropolitan and District railways were city maps with the lines superimposed, [244] and the District published a pocket map in 1897. [245] A Central London Railway route diagram appears on a 1904 postcard and 1905 poster, [246] similar maps appearing in District Railway cars in 1908. [247] In the same year, following a marketing agreement between the operators, a joint central area map that included all the lines was published. [248] [249] A new map was published in 1921 without any background details, but the central area was squashed, requiring smaller letters and arrows. [250] Harry Beck had the idea of expanding this central area, distorting geography, and simplifying the map so that the railways appeared as straight lines with equally spaced stations. He presented his original draft in 1931, and after initial rejection it was first printed in 1933. Today's tube map is an evolution of that original design, and the ideas are used by many metro systems around the world. [251] [252]

      The current standard tube map shows the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground, Emirates Air Line, London Tramlink and the London Underground [253] a more detailed map covering a larger area, published by National Rail and Transport for London, includes suburban railway services. [184] The tube map came second in a BBC and London Transport Museum poll asking for a favourite UK design icon of the 20th century [254] and the underground's 150th anniversary was celebrated by a Google Doodle on the search engine. [255] [256]

      Commissioned by Art on the Underground, the cover of the pocket map is designed by various British and international artists, one of the largest public art commissions in the UK. [257]

      Roundel Edit

      While the first use of a roundel in a London transport context was the trademark of the London General Omnibus Company registered in 1905, it was first used on the Underground in 1908 when the UERL placed a solid red circle behind station nameboards on platforms to highlight the name. [258] [259] The word "UNDERGROUND" was placed in a roundel instead of a station name on posters in 1912 by Charles Sharland and Alfred France, as well as on undated and possibly earlier posters from the same period. [260] Frank Pick, impressed by the Paris Metro, thought the solid red disc cumbersome and took a version where the disc became a ring from a 1915 Sharland poster and gave it to Edward Johnston to develop, and registered the symbol as a trademark in 1917. [261] [37] The roundel was first printed on a map cover using the Johnston typeface in June 1919, and printed in colour the following October. [262]

      After the UERL was absorbed into the London Passenger Transport Board in 1933, it used forms of the roundel for buses, trams and coaches, as well as the Underground. The words "London Transport" were added inside the ring, above and below the bar. The Carr-Edwards report, published in 1938 as possibly the first attempt at a graphics standards manual, introduced stricter guidelines. [263] Between 1948 and 1957 the word "Underground" in the bar was replaced by "London Transport". [264] As of 2013 [update] , forms of the roundel, with differing colours for the ring and bar, is used for other TfL services, such as London Buses, Tramlink, London Overground, London River Services and Docklands Light Railway. [265] Crossrail will also be identified with a roundel. [266] The 100th anniversary of the roundel was celebrated in 2008 by TfL commissioning 100 artists to produce works that celebrate the design. [267] [268]

      In 2016, Tate Modern commissioned conceptual artist Michael Craig-Martin to "reimagine" the roundel, changing its colours for the first time since the sign was introduced. His design was displayed at Southwark Station in collaboration with Art on the Underground to mark the opening weekend of the new Tate Modern gallery situated near the station. [269]

      An early form of the roundel as used on the platform at Ealing Broadway.

      The form used today outside Westminster tube station.

      Roundel and "way out" arrow on a platform at Bethnal Green station.

      Michael Craig-Martin's updated 2016 roundel design.

      Architecture Edit

      Seventy of the 270 London Underground stations use buildings that are on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest, and five have entrances in listed buildings. [270] The Metropolitan Railway's original seven stations were inspired by Italianate designs, with the platforms lit by daylight from above and by gas lights in large glass globes. [271] Early District Railway stations were similar and on both railways the further from central London the station the simpler the construction. [272] The City & South London Railway opened with red-brick buildings, designed by Thomas Phillips Figgis, topped with a lead-covered dome that contained the lift mechanism and weather vane (still visible at many stations e.g. Clapham Common. [35] [273] The Central London Railway appointed Harry Bell Measures as architect, who designed its pinkish-brown steel-framed buildings with larger entrances. [274]

      In the first decade of the 20th century Leslie Green established a house style for the tube stations built by the UERL, which were clad in ox-blood faience blocks. [275] Green pioneered using building design to guide passengers with direction signs on tiled walls, with the stations given a unique identity with patterns on the platform walls. [276] [277] Many of these tile patterns survive, though a significant number of these are now replicas. [278] Harry W. Ford was responsible for the design of at least 17 UERL and District Railway stations, including Barons Court and Embankment, and claimed to have first thought of enlarging the U and D in the UNDERGROUND wordmark. [279] The Met's architect Charles Walter Clark had used a neo-classical design for rebuilding Baker Street and Paddington Praed Street stations before the First World War and, although the fashion had changed, continued with Farringdon in 1923. The buildings had metal lettering attached to pale walls. [274] Clark would later design "Chiltern Court", the large, luxurious block of apartments at Baker Street, that opened in 1929. [280] In the 1920s and 1930s, Charles Holden designed a series of modernist and art-deco stations some of which he described as his 'brick boxes with concrete lids'. [281] Holden's design for the Underground's headquarters building at 55 Broadway included avant-garde sculptures by Jacob Epstein, Eric Gill and Henry Moore. [282] [283]

      When the Central line was extended east, the stations were simplified Holden proto-Brutalist designs, [284] and a cavernous concourse built at Gants Hill in honour of early Moscow Metro stations. [285] Few new stations were built in the 50 years after 1948, but Misha Black was appointed design consultant for the 1960s Victoria line, contributing to the line's uniform look, [286] with each station having an individual tile motif. [287] Notable stations from this period include Moor Park, the stations of the Piccadilly line extension to Heathrow and Hillingdon.

      In recent years, the stations of the 1990s Jubilee Line Extension were designed in a high-tech style by architects such as Norman Foster and Michael Hopkins. [288] The project was critically acclaimed, with the Royal Fine Arts Commission describing the project as "an example of patronage at its best and most enlightened", and two stations shortlisted for the Stirling Prize. [289] Stations were built to the latest standards, future proofed for growth, with innovations such as Platform screen doors. [290] West Ham station was built as a homage to the red brick tube stations of the 1930s, using brick, concrete and glass.

      Many platforms have unique interior designs to help passenger identification. The tiling at Baker Street incorporates repetitions of Sherlock Holmes's silhouette, [291] at Tottenham Court Road semi-abstract mosaics by Eduardo Paolozzi feature musical instruments, tape machines and butterflies, [292] and at Charing Cross, David Gentleman designed the mural depicting the construction of the Eleanor Cross. [35] Robyn Denny designed the murals on the Northern line platforms at Embankment. [291]

      Johnston typeface Edit

      The first posters used various type fonts, as was contemporary practice, [293] and station signs used sans serif block capitals. [294] The Johnston typeface was developed in upper and lower case in 1916, and a complete set of blocks, marked Johnston Sans, was made by the printers the following year. [295] A bold version of the capitals was developed by Johnston in 1929. [296] The Met changed to a serif letterform for its signs in the 1920s, used on the stations rebuilt by Clark. [297] Johnston was adopted systemwide after the formation of the LPTB in 1933 and the LT wordmark was applied to locomotives and carriages. [298] Johnston was redesigned, becoming New Johnston, for photo-typesetting in the early 1980s when Elichi Kono designed a range that included Light, Medium and Bold, each with its italic version. The typesetters P22 developed today's electronic version, sometimes called TfL Johnston, in 1997. [299]

      Posters and patronage of the arts Edit

      Early advertising posters used various letter fonts. [300] Graphic posters first appeared in the 1890s, [301] and it became possible to print colour images economically in the early 20th century. [302] The Central London Railway used colour illustrations in their 1905 poster, [303] and from 1908 the Underground Group, under Pick's direction, used images of country scenes, shopping and major events on posters to encourage use of the tube. [304] Pick found he was limited by the commercial artists the printers used, and so commissioned work from artists and designers such as Dora Batty, [305] Edward McKnight Kauffer, the cartoonist George Morrow, [301] Herry (Heather) Perry, [305] Graham Sutherland, [301] Charles Sharland [306] and the sisters Anna and Doris Zinkeisen. According to Ruth Artmonsky, over 150 women artists were commissioned by Pick and latterly Christian Barman to design posters for London Underground, London Transport and London County Council Tramways. [307]

      The Johnston Sans letter font began appearing on posters from 1917. [306] The Met, strongly independent, used images on timetables and on the cover of its Metro-land guide that promoted the country it served for the walker, visitor and later the house-hunter. [308] [309] By the time London Transport was formed in 1933 the UERL was considered a patron of the arts [301] and over 1000 works were commissioned in the 1930s, such as the cartoon images of Charles Burton and Kauffer's later abstract cubist and surrealist images. [310] Harold Hutchison became London Transport publicity officer in 1947, after the Second World War and nationalisation, and introduced the "pair poster", where an image on a poster was paired with text on another. Numbers of commissions dropped, to eight a year in the 1950s and just four a year in the 1970s, [301] with images from artists such Harry Stevens and Tom Eckersley. [311]

      Art on the Underground was launched in 2000 to revive London Underground as a patron of the arts. [312] Today, commissions range from the pocket tube map cover, to temporary art pieces, to large scale permanent installations in stations. [313] [314] Major commissions by Art on the Underground in recent years have included Labyrinth by Turner prize winning artist Mark Wallinger to mark the 150th anniversary of the London Underground, [315] "Diamonds and Circles" permanent works "in situ" by French artist Daniel Buren at Tottenham Court Road [316] and "Beauty < Immortality”, a memorial to Frank Pick by Langlands & Bell at Piccadilly Circus. [317]

      Similarly, Poems on the Underground has commissioned poetry since 1986 that are displayed in carriages. [318]

      In popular culture Edit

      The Underground (including several fictitious stations [319] ) has been featured in many movies and television shows, including Skyfall, Die Another Day, Sliding Doors, An American Werewolf in London, Creep, Tube Tales, Sherlock and Neverwhere. The London Underground Film Office received over 200 requests to film in 2000. [320] The Underground has also featured in music such as The Jam's "Down in the Tube Station at Midnight" and in literature such as the graphic novel V for Vendetta. Popular legends about the Underground being haunted persist to this day. [321] In 2016, British composer Daniel Liam Glyn released his concept album Changing Stations based on the 11 main tube lines of the London Underground network. [322]

      Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 has a single-player level named Mind The Gap where most of the level takes place between the dockyards and Westminster while the player and a team of SAS attempt to take down terrorists attempting to escape using the London Underground via a hijacked train. The game also features the multiplayer map "Underground", in which players are combating in a fictitious Underground station. The London Underground map serves as a playing field for the conceptual game of Mornington Crescent [323] (which is named after a station on the Northern line) and the board game The London Game.

      The London Underground is frequently studied by academics because it is one of the largest, oldest, and most widely used systems of public transit in the world. Therefore, the transportation and complex network literatures include extensive information about the Tube system.

      For London Underground passengers, research suggests that transfers are highly costly in terms of walk and wait times. Because these costs are unevenly distributed across stations and platforms, path choice analyses may be helpful in guiding upgrades and choice of new stations. [324] Routes on the Underground can also be optimized using a global network optimization approach, akin to routing algorithms for Internet applications. [325] Analysis of the Underground as a network may also be helpful for setting safety priorities, since the stations targeted in the 2005 London bombings were amongst the most effective for disrupting the transportation system. [326]


      Bavel is a Middle Eastern restaurant in Los Angeles devoted to cooking the borderless foods of the Arab world. In their new cookbook, chefs Genevieve Gergis and Ori Menashe—known, too, for their Italian restaurant, Bestia—celebrate those foods, inspired by their roots: Menashe’s childhood in Israel and his family in Georgia, Morocco, Persia, and more, and Gergis’s Egyptian ancestors.

      But while these foods stem from tradition, they aren’t a “menu of re-creations.” Recipes, such as hummus with avocado tahini and pepita-chile oil, are infused with the chefs’ refined, Southern California sensibility. Naturally, the book opens with spices and spice mixes and, from there, segues into sauces and pickles, spreads (including four variations on hummus) and salads, breakfasts and breads, seafood and meats. There’s even a chapter on family recipes, which includes beef-stuffed hingali (dumplings) from Menashe’s father.

      Community Reviews

      Update. given I ‘AM’ still thinking about this novel . I’m adding one more star.
      from 3 stars to 4. This book is growing on me.

      This is a hard review for me to write . because I wasn’t crazy about this book.
      I have only myself to blame. I didn’t read ‘one’ thing about this novel when Rebecca Rosenberg asked me if I would like to read it: “The Secret Life of Mrs. London”,
      in exchange for a review.
      I was happy to read Rebecca’s novel. California native, who lives in Sonoma. always ni Update. given I ‘AM’ still thinking about this novel . I’m adding one more star.
      from 3 stars to 4. This book is growing on me.

      This is a hard review for me to write . because I wasn’t crazy about this book.
      I have only myself to blame. I didn’t read ‘one’ thing about this novel when Rebecca Rosenberg asked me if I would like to read it: “The Secret Life of Mrs. London”,
      in exchange for a review.
      I was happy to read Rebecca’s novel. California native, who lives in Sonoma. always nice to get behind our locals - and first time authors.
      Plus, there is some hanky-panky weird history about Jack London in relationship to my husband, Paul. Without going into all the nitty-gritty details that have been passed down to us —- we are fairly certain Jack London was Paul’s great great biological grandfather. I’ve never been a huge Jack London fan myself beyond a couple of his books, but the ties with Paul’s Family kinda interested me.

      However -if I had just read the blurb on Goodreads as I did seconds ago - I would have read about Houdini being part of this story.
      I have zero interest in Houdini. and he’s a large presence throughout. So for those who are interested in anything Houdini- then by all means - choose this book - lots of Houdini to chew on.
      Hers’s a small example:
      Jack and Houdini are on stage together a few times in this novel. The audience loves them- cheers - and bows. This one time Houdini was holding a burning knife like a torch, and hurls it at Jack’s Head.
      “The knife twists through steamy air slowly, trailing fire and smoke on its path across stage. As the knife thrusts into the wood above Jack’s Head, flames singe his hair”.
      Mrs. London wanted to kill them both - and who could blame her?

      The first 75% of this novel is equally about Jack London as it is Mrs. London. yes there is a scandal between Mrs. London, ie, Charmain, or Charmie, or Chairman, or Mate, or Mate-Woman in that first 75%. she types for Jack. supporting him complete a thousand words a day, has rendezvous moments on the beach in Hawaii,
      definitely withholds personal thoughts and feelings, and clearly wants to be a writer in her own right. but it’s really the last 25% of this book where Mrs London takes full stage as the leading character in book. which takes place in New York Houdini is her supporting character.

      I don’t need to like characters to enjoy a book - but I need some redeeming qualities of inspiration ‘somewhere’. And that’s what this book didn’t have enough of for me. Nothing inspired me - moved me. I really didn’t care about the adults sex lives — I didn’t find it steamy or in the least bit shocking or interesting.

      I wouldn’t want to be friends with most the people in this book. Jack’s sister, Eliza,could cook great and seemed pretty nice.

      Jack London. who had kidney stones, rheumatism, smoked cigarettes and drank martinis like they were going out of style could be an narcissistic, disrespectful asshole. His all time finale asshole performance was when the MOST LIKABLE CHARACTER in this book: *Nakata*, a loyal saint of a servant finally wanted to quit. Jack was down right rude him - then said couldn’t quit because he was like family. If he was like family, how come he never shared a meal with him?

      Mrs. London and Jack - both had crazy sex lives - and ideas about soul relationships - They were both too nuts and eccentric for my taste.
      Houdin’s wife Bessie was a real character - she had an obsession with dolls .

      Back to my favorite:
      Nakata. who wanted to be a dentist. with graciousness and dignity. he served fresh brewed Kona coffee on the lanai in the mornings in Hawaii to Jack and Charmsin. He brought them pitchers of cocktails, kept them fed throughout the day with raw Bonita and papaya, or steaming malasades fried dough with haupia coconut milk custard, and delicious dinners.

      One last thing - which I did enjoy - a tidbit. At the start of each chapter was a quote-by Jack London from one of his books. And since my favorite book of his is “The Call of the Wild”.
      This is the quote Rebecca Rosenberg chose . which I like very much too.

      “There is an ecstasy that marks the summit of life,
      and Beyond which life, cannot rise. And such is the paradox of living, this ecstasy comes when one is most alive, and it comes as a complete forgetfulness that one is alive”.

      From 1916 to 1917. Sonoma, Napa Valley, Beauty Ranch, Glenn Ellen, Hawaii,- Big Island, Oahu, New York, Manhattan, Greenwich Village, Sausalito, back to Napa Valley Area.

      Note. Mrs London did eventually get her book, “Our Hawaii” published by Macmillan. selling 95 copies.

      Liked it - didn’t love it. readable . but not uplifting or inspiring or particularly interesting to me. However, for a first novel, it’s written well.

      Thank you Lake Union Publishing, Netgalley, and Rebecca Rosenberg . more